424B5
Table of Contents

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration No. 333-229091

 

The information in this preliminary prospectus supplement is not complete and may be changed. A registration statement relating to these securities has been filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and is effective. This preliminary prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are not an offer to sell these securities and they are not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED MARCH 6, 2019

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(To Prospectus Dated February 26, 2019)

$75,000,000

 

 

LOGO

Common Stock

 

 

We are offering $75,000,000 of shares of our common stock in this offering.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “APLS.” The last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on March 5, 2019 was $18.48 per share.

 

 

Investing in our common stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-12 of this prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

     Per Share      Total  

Public Offering Price

   $                        $                    

Underwriting Discounts and Commissions(1)

   $                        $                    

Proceeds to Apellis (before expenses)

   $                        $                    

 

(1)

We refer you to “Underwriting” beginning on page S-25 of this prospectus supplement for additional information regarding underwriter compensation

 

 

The underwriters also have the option to purchase up to an additional $11,250,000 of shares of our common stock on the same terms and conditions set forth above for 30 days after the date of this prospectus supplement.

The underwriters expect to deliver the shares to purchasers on or about                     , 2019.

 

 

Joint Bookrunning Managers

 

Citigroup   J.P. Morgan   Cowen

Lead Manager

Cantor

 

 

                    , 2019


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

     S-1  

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

     S-2  

RISK FACTORS

     S-12  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND INDUSTRY DATA

     S-15  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-17  

DIVIDEND POLICY

     S-18  

DILUTION

     S-19  

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME AND ESTATE TAX CONSIDERATIONS FOR NON-U.S. HOLDERS OF OUR COMMON STOCK

     S-21  

UNDERWRITING

     S-25  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-30  

EXPERTS

     S-30  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     S-31  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     S-31  
PROSPECTUS  
     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     2  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

     2  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     3  

APELLIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

     5  

RISK FACTORS

     6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     7  

SELLING STOCKHOLDERS

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     9  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     19  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     26  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     27  

FORMS OF SECURITIES

     28  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     30  

LEGAL MATTERS

     34  

EXPERTS

     34  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this common stock offering and also adds to and updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein. The second part, the accompanying prospectus, provides more general information. Generally, when we refer to this prospectus, we are referring to both parts of this document combined. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement and the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or any document incorporated by reference therein filed prior to the date of this prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement; provided that if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in the accompanying prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference herein were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

Neither we nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide any information other than that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We and the underwriters take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to purchase, the securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in any jurisdiction to or from any person to whom or from whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation of an offer in such jurisdiction. The information contained in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, or incorporated by reference herein or therein is accurate only as of the respective dates thereof, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or of any sale of our common stock. It is important for you to read and consider all information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, in making your investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” in this prospectus supplement and in the accompanying prospectus.

We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of our common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the offering of the common stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the common stock and the distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus outside the United States. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.

Unless otherwise stated, all references in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus to “we,” “us,” “our,” “Apellis,” “the Company” and similar designations refer to Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and where appropriate, our consolidated subsidiaries.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and in the documents we incorporate by reference herein and therein. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our common stock. You should read this entire prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus carefully, especially the risks of investing in our common stock discussed under “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-12 of this prospectus supplement and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, along with our consolidated financial statements and notes to those consolidated financial statements and the other information incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, before making an investment decision.

Company Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of novel therapeutic compounds to treat disease through the inhibition of the complement system, which is an integral component of the immune system, at the level of C3, the central protein in the complement cascade. We believe that this approach can result in broad inhibition of the principal pathways of the complement system and has the potential to effectively control a broad array of complement-dependent autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

We have the most advanced clinical program targeting C3 with Phase 3 clinical trials of our lead product candidate, APL-2, in multiple indications. We believe that APL-2 has the potential to be a best-in-class treatment that may address the limitations of existing treatment options or provide a treatment option where there currently is none. APL-2 has already shown activity that we believe is clinically meaningful in clinical trials for four distinct medical conditions—geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration, or GA; paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, or PNH; cold agglutinin disease, or CAD; and warm antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia, or wAIHA. In addition to trials for these indications, we are conducting a Phase 2 clinical trial of APL-2 in patients with glomerular diseases with complement involvement.

We initiated a Phase 3 clinical program consisting of two Phase 3 clinical trials evaluating APL-2 in patients with GA in September 2018. In our Phase 2 clinical trial of APL-2 in patients with GA, treatment with APL-2 resulted in a significant reduction in the rate of GA lesion growth over 12 months. In June 2018, we initiated a Phase 3 clinical program evaluating APL-2 in patients with PNH who are anemic while being treated with eculizumab, an approved therapy for PNH and in mid-2019, we plan to initiate a second Phase 3 clinical trial in patients with PNH who have not been treated with eculizumab. In our ongoing Phase 1b trials in PNH, APL-2 has achieved improvements in transfusion dependency, hemoglobin levels and other hematological indicators that we believe are clinically meaningful. In our ongoing Phase 2 clinical trials of APL-2 in patients with CAD and wAIHA, patients with CAD and with wAIHA have achieved reduced extravascular hemolysis, measured by increased hemoglobin levels, reduced reticulocytes and bilirubin levels, and reduced intravascular hemolysis, measured by reduced lactate dehydrogenase. We plan to continue clinical development of APL-2 for these indications. We are developing novel compounds targeting C3 and plan to conduct clinical trials of these compounds in additional complement-dependent diseases. We hold worldwide commercialization rights to APL-2 and those other novel compounds targeting C3.

Our Programs

Our lead product candidate, APL-2, is a C3 inhibitor. APL-2 is a conjugate of a compstatin analogue, formulated both for intravitreal injection, which is an injection directly into the eye, and systemic administration by subcutaneous injection, which is an injection into the tissue under the skin.



 

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The following table summarizes key information about our clinical program for APL-2:

 

Indication

  

Clinical Trials

  

Trial Participants

  

Estimated Timeline

Ophthalmology (intravitreal)

        

GA

   Phase 3 trials    Patients with GA    Complete enrollment 1Q 2020

Hematology (systemic)

        

PNH

   Phase 1b trial    Treatment-naïve patients with PNH    Additional data 2019
   Phase 3 trial (PEGASUS)    Eculizumab-treated patients with PNH    Enrollment completed 2Q 2019; top-line data 4Q 2019
   Phase 3 trial (PRINCE)    Treatment-naïve patients with PNH    Initiate mid-2019

CAD

   Phase 2 trial    Patients with CAD    Additional data 2Q 2019

wAIHA

   Phase 2 trial    Patients with wAIHA    Additional data 2Q 2019

Nephrology (systemic)

        

Glomerular Diseases with Complement Involvement

   Phase 2 trial    Patients with glomerular diseases with complement involvement    Interim Data 2H 2019

GA Program

In GA, we are developing APL-2 to be injected intravitreally as a monotherapy. GA is an advanced form of age-related macular degeneration, or AMD, which is a disorder of the central portion of the retina characterized by progressive retinal cell death that ultimately leads to blindness. GA is a disease with significant unmet need that affects approximately one million patients in the United States and for which there are no U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, approved therapies. In July 2018, we received fast track designation from the FDA for APL-2 in GA.

Our ongoing Phase 3 clinical program in GA consists of two 600-patient prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, sham-injection controlled trials (DERBY and OAKS) to assess the efficacy and safety of multiple intravitreal injections of APL-2 in patients with GA, with the goal of enrolling a total of 1,200 patients across approximately 200 sites worldwide. Patients in each Phase 3 trial receive a dose of 15 mg of APL-2 injected intravitreally in a 0.1 cc volume, monthly or every other month for 24 months. In the sham-injection cohorts, patients receive a simulated injection. As with our Phase 2 clinical trial, the primary endpoint of each trial is the change in total area of GA lesions in the study eye from baseline to month 12 compared to sham. The measurements of change will be analyzed at 12 months (primary endpoint) and 24 months. We dosed the first patient in the Phase 3 trials in September 2018. We continue to expect that both trials will be fully enrolled by the end of the first quarter of 2020.

In 2018, we completed a Phase 2 trial of APL-2 in 246 patients in which APL-2 was administered as an intravitreal injection monthly or every other month for 12 months. In this trial, APL-2 achieved the primary



 

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endpoint of reduction in the rate of GA lesion growth at 12 months. Patients treated monthly with APL-2 showed a 29% reduction in the rate of GA lesion growth compared to sham, with a p-value of 0.008, and patients treated with APL-2 every other month showed a 20% reduction, with a p-value of 0.067. P-value is a conventional statistical method for measuring the statistical significance of clinical results. In our Phase 2 trial, we set statistical significance as a p-value of 0.1 or less, meaning that there is a 1-in-10 or less statistical probability that the observed results occurred by chance rather than as a result of a treatment effect. Because the p-value of these results was less than 0.1, they are statistically significant.

Additionally, in a post hoc analysis of the Phase 2 trial, a greater effect was observed during the second six months of the treatment period compared to the first six months. During the second six months, we observed a reduction in the rate of GA lesion growth for patients for whom images were available at six and 12 months of 47% with monthly administration compared to sham, with a p-value of less than 0.001, and a reduction of 33% with administration every other month compared to sham, with a p-value of 0.01. These results are also statistically significant.

After the 12-month treatment period, patients were monitored for a further six months without treatment. During this monitoring period, the GA lesions in the previously treated groups grew at a rate similar to sham. Patients who received monthly APL-2, and for whom images were available at 12 and 18 months, showed a 12% reduction in the growth rate of lesions over the six-month monitoring period compared to sham, while patients who received every other month administration of APL-2 showed a 9% reduction in the growth rate of lesions over the six-month monitoring period compared to sham. These differences are not considered to be statistically significant.

PNH Program

In PNH, we are developing APL-2 to be injected subcutaneously as a monotherapy. PNH is a rare, life-threatening, chronic, debilitating blood disorder characterized by the absence of certain proteins that normally regulate complement activity on the surface of blood cells. As a consequence, patients with PNH suffer from significant and chronic red blood cell loss, or hemolysis. The only therapies currently approved for the treatment of PNH, eculizumab (Soliris) and ravulizumab (Ultomiris), both of which are marketed by Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc., inhibit the complement system by targeting C5, a protein that is downstream from C3 in the complement cascade. Inhibitors that target C5 are limited to addressing only one of the two mechanisms of hemolysis in PNH. In a third-party study published in Blood in 2017, it was reported that over 70% of patients with PNH who are on treatment with eculizumab remain anemic and 36% of patients on eculizumab continue to require at least one transfusion per year. These conditions are associated with a poor quality of life. By contrast, APL-2, because it targets C3, addresses both mechanisms of hemolysis and, we believe, may therefore significantly ameliorate anemia, reduce transfusions and improve patient quality of life for patients being treated with these approved therapies.

We initiated a Phase 3 clinical trial in patients with PNH in June 2018. This Phase 3 clinical trial, which we refer to as our PEGASUS trial, is a 70-patient randomized head-to-head trial comparing APL-2 monotherapy to eculizumab monotherapy in patients with PNH currently on treatment with eculizumab who have a hemoglobin level of greater than 10.5 g/dL, regardless of eculizumab dose or transfusion history. The treatment period of the trial consists of three parts: a four-week run-in period, a 16-week randomized treatment period and a 32-week open-label APL-2 only period. During the run-in period, all patients receive twice-weekly subcutaneous doses of 1,080 mg of APL-2 in addition to patients’ then current dose of eculizumab. The run-in period is designed to provide patients with sufficient plasma concentration of APL-2 to provide for what we expect to be adequate complement inhibition before withdrawing eculizumab. Following completion of the run-in period, patients will receive either 1,080 mg of APL-2 twice per week or their current dose of eculizumab through the duration of the 16-week randomized treatment period. The primary endpoint of the trial is the change in hemoglobin level from



 

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baseline at week 16. Following completion of the randomized treatment period with either APL-2 monotherapy or eculizumab monotherapy, all 70 patients will receive APL-2 monotherapy for 32 weeks in an open-label treatment period. We expect to have completed enrollment for the PEGASUS trial by the end of the second quarter of 2019 and to report top-line data in the fourth quarter of 2019.

We also plan to initiate a 48-patient Phase 3 clinical trial, which we refer to as the PRINCE study, in patients who have not been treated with eculizumab, who we refer to as treatment-naïve patients, in mid-2019.

In our Phase 1b trials of APL-2 for the treatment of PNH, treatment with APL-2 has been associated with improvements in transfusion dependency, levels of hemoglobin—the protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body—and other hematological indicators that we believe are clinically meaningful. We made these observations both in the PADDOCK trial, which enrolled treatment-naïve patients, and in the PHAROAH trial, which enrolled patients being treated with eculizumab who remained anemic and required frequent blood transfusions. In these Phase 1b trials, APL-2 has been generally well tolerated.

In our Phase 1b trial with patients treated with eculizumab, four of the six patients who had been treated with daily doses of 270 mg of APL-2 and with eculizumab continued on treatment until they completed the trial (2 years of dosing with APL-2). These four patients received co-treatment with APL-2 and eculizumab for 16 to 22 months. All four patients were discontinued from treatment with eculizumab based on decisions made by treating physicians and are continuing treatment with APL-2 as a monotherapy in a long-term extension study that we are conducting.

We announced interim data from our Phase 1b trial of treatment-naïve patients at the 60th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology, or the ASH Conference, in December 2018 from 19 patients at baseline, 15 patients on treatment at day 85 and ten patients on treatment at day 169. The reported patients achieved transfusion independence with an average hemoglobin increase of 4.2 g/dL by day 85 to 12.2 g/dL and average reticulocytes decrease of 50% from 2.0x upper limit of normal, or ULN, to 1.0x ULN. LDH was reduced from 9.7x ULN at baseline to 0.9x at day 85 with 80% of patients achieving normal LDH. The baseline hemoglobin was 8.0 g/dL (n=19) which increased to 10.8 g/dL (n=19) and 12.2 g/dL (n=15) at days 29 and 85, respectively. In the 12 months prior to screening, the reported patients had received an average of 8.7 units packed red blood cells (range 0-28). Each patient achieved transfusion independence while on APL-2 maintenance therapy with the exception of one patient with severe aplastic anemia at day 364. We believe that systemic inhibition of C3 with APL-2 may control both intravascular and extravascular hemolysis in PNH patients, as demonstrated by normalization of LDH, total bilirubin, and reticulocytes, which are all markers of hemolysis.

We believe that our current clinical trial program for PNH will allow us to submit APL-2 for regulatory approval with the FDA, the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, and the Japanese Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency.

In April 2014, we received orphan drug designation from the FDA for APL-2 for PNH. In February 2019 we received fast track designation from the FDA for APL-2 for patients with PNH, which superseded the fast track designation we received in December 2016 for APL-2 for the subset of patients with PNH who continue to require transfusions despite receiving therapy with eculizumab. If our clinical development of APL-2 for PNH is successful, we believe that APL-2 could be a best-in-class therapy for PNH, differentiated by mechanism, and we believe APL-2 has the potential to significantly increase the quality of life of patients with PNH as compared to the current standard of care.

CAD Program

In our CAD program, we are developing APL-2 to be injected subcutaneously as a monotherapy. In March 2018, we initiated a Phase 2 clinical trial of APL-2 administered by subcutaneous injection in patients with CAD.



 

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CAD is a severe, chronic rare autoimmune disorder caused by pathogenic Immunoglobulin M antibodies that react with red blood cells at body temperatures below 30 degrees Celsius and leads to clumping, or agglutination, of red blood cells. Agglutinated red blood cells activate the complement system leading to destruction of the red blood cells. The disease is often characterized by chronic anemia, severe fatigue, and an increased risk of life-threatening events such as stroke. There are an estimated 10,000 patients with CAD across the United States and Europe. There are currently no approved therapies for CAD.

In December 2018, we announced interim data from the Phase 2 trial at the ASH Conference. As of December 3, 2018, we had enrolled 12 patients with CAD in the Phase 2 trial, of which five patients had been treated for at least 56 days. In this clinical trial, treatment with APL-2 reduced extravascular hemolysis, measured by increased hemoglobin levels and reduced reticulocytes and bilirubin levels, and intravascular hemolysis measured by reduced LDH in patients with CAD. We plan to provide additional data in the second quarter of 2019.

wAIHA Program

In our wAIHA program, we are developing APL-2 to be injected subcutaneously as a monotherapy. In March 2018, we initiated a Phase 2 clinical trial of APL-2 administered by subcutaneous injection in patients with wAIHA. wAIHA is a rare autoimmune disorder caused by pathogenic Immunoglobulin G antibodies that react with red blood cells and can activate the complement system leading to the premature destruction of red blood cells at normal body temperature. The disease is often characterized by profound, and potentially life-threatening anemia and other acute complications, including severe and life-threatening hemolysis, severe weakness, enlarged spleen or liver, rapid heart rate, chest pain, heart failure and fainting. There are estimated to be more than 30,000 patients with wAIHA across the United States and Europe. There are currently no approved treatments for wAIHA.

In December 2018, we announced interim data from the Phase 2 trial at the ASH conference. As of December 3, 2018, we had enrolled nine patients with wAIHA, of which five patients had been treated for at least 56 days. In this clinical trial, treatment with APL-2 reduced extravascular hemolysis, measured by increased hemoglobin levels, reduced reticulocytes and bilirubin levels, and intravascular hemolysis measured by reduced LDH, in patients with wAIHA. We plan to provide additional data in the second quarter of 2019.

Other Indications

We are currently conducting a Phase 2 trial of APL-2 in four types of glomerular diseases in which complement has been implicated: C3 glomerulopathy, IgA nephropathy, primary membranous nephropathy and lupus nephritis. We initiated this trial of APL-2 in patients with glomerular diseases with complement involvement in the first quarter of 2018 and plan to provide interim data in the second half of 2019. In December 2018, we received orphan drug designation from the FDA for the treatment of C3 glomerulopathy.

By combining our core expertise in complement inhibition with our deep understanding of complement immunology, we intend to expand our pipeline of potential treatment areas with APL-2 and with additional new product candidates, including APL-9, which we are developing for intravenous administration in systemic indications.

Recent Developments

Development Funding Agreement with SFJ Pharmaceuticals

On February 28, 2019, we entered into a development funding agreement with SFJ Pharmaceuticals Group, or SFJ, under which SFJ agreed to provide funding to us to support the development of APL-2 for the treatment of patients with PNH.



 

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Under the agreement, SFJ has agreed to pay us $60 million following execution of the agreement and to pay us up to an additional $60 million in the aggregate in three equal installments upon the achievement of specified development milestones with respect to our Phase 3 program for APL-2 in PNH and subject to us having cash resources at the time sufficient to fund at least 10 months of our operations. We expect that those milestones will occur during 2019. In addition, upon the mutual agreement of us and SFJ, at any time after the earlier of the date that we have reviewed the primary endpoint data from our PEGASUS Phase 3 trial of APL-2 in patients with PNH and March 31, 2020, SFJ may fund an additional $50 million of our development costs, or the Additional Funding.

We agreed that following each regulatory approval from the FDA or EMA, we will pay to SFJ an initial payment of $2.5 million (or a total of $5 million if regulatory approval is granted by the FDA and the EMA) and then an additional $192.5 million in the aggregate (or $385 million if regulatory approval is granted by the FDA and the EMA) in six additional annual payments with the majority of the payments being made from the third anniversary to the sixth anniversary of regulatory approval and the specific amount of each annual payment being determined by the timing of the regulatory approval. Such payments will be proportionately adjusted in the event that the actual funding from SFJ is lower or greater than $120 million (including as a result of the payment of the Additional Funding). We will not be obligated to make these approval payments if we do not receive regulatory approval for the use of APL-2 as a treatment for PNH.

Concurrently with entering into the agreement, we and SFJ entered into a letter of intent to negotiate and enter into a joint development agreement to support our clinical development of APL-2 for the treatment of patients with CAD and wAIHA. Under the terms of the letter of intent, following execution of the agreement and agreement as to the development program for both indications, SFJ would fund $30 million of the development costs for these indications.

Resumption of Enrollment in Phase 3 Clinical Program for Patients with GA

On March 4, 2019, we announced that with the agreement of the independent safety monitoring committee for our Phase 3 clinical program for APL-2 in patients with GA, we have resumed enrollment of our two Phase 3 clinical trials in patients with GA with intravitreal APL-2. We continue to expect that both trials will be fully enrolled by the end of the first quarter of 2020.

In October 2018, we announced that we had voluntarily implemented a pause in dosing in the Phase 3 trials due to observed cases of non-infectious inflammation in patients treated from a single manufacturing lot of APL-2 intravitreal investigational material. Inflammation in all affected patients resolved.

Based on our investigation, we believe that the likely source of inflammation resided in an impurity in the active pharmaceutical ingredient that was introduced during the scale-up of the manufacturing process to produce commercial lot sizes. We modified our manufacturing process in order to eliminate the impurity and have manufactured sufficient supply of APL-2 utilizing the modified manufacturing process to conduct the Phase 3 GA program.

APL-2 intravitreal drug product produced from the modified manufacturing process was introduced into our ongoing Phase 1b trial in low vision patients with GA. Ten patients in the Phase 1b trial have received at least one intravitreal injection of APL-2 manufactured through the modified process, and there has been no inflammation observed in any patient injected with APL-2 from this new manufacturing lot. Patients in the Phase 1b trial will continue to receive monthly APL-2 injections for two years.

The independent safety monitoring committee reviewed all non-clinical data and clinical data from the Phase 1b trial and agreed that we could resume dosing in the Phase 3 program using APL-2 manufactured with the modified process.



 

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Risks Associated with Our Business

Our business is subject to a number of risks of which you should be aware before making an investment decision. These risks are discussed more fully in the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus supplement immediately following this prospectus supplement summary and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, which is incorporated by reference herein. These risks include the following:

 

   

We have incurred significant losses since inception, expect to incur significant and increasing losses for at least the next several years, and may never achieve or maintain profitability.

 

   

We have not yet successfully completed any Phase 3 clinical trials nor commercialized pharmaceutical products, which may make it difficult to evaluate our future prospects.

 

   

We will need substantial additional funding, and if we are unable to raise capital when needed, we could be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our product development programs or commercialization efforts.

 

   

There are no approved therapies that act by inhibiting C3 and we may not be able to successfully develop and commercialize APL-2 or other product candidates.

 

   

We are dependent on the successful development and commercialization of APL-2.

 

   

If we observe additional instances of inflammation in our Phase 3 trials of APL-2 for the treatment of GA, we may need to once again pause these trials and we would incur additional delays and costs.

 

   

If clinical trials of our product candidates fail to satisfactorily demonstrate safety and efficacy to the FDA and other regulators, we, or any future collaborators, may incur additional costs, experience delays or be unable to complete the development and commercialization of these product candidates.

 

   

There are only a limited number of specialist physicians that regularly treat patients with PNH and major clinical centers that support PNH treatment are concentrated in a few geographic regions. Both patients and their physicians may be reluctant to forgo, discontinue or otherwise alter existing, approved life-saving therapeutic approaches such as eculizumab. Given the severe and life-threatening nature of PNH and the expectation that many patients will be on treatment with eculizumab, we may encounter difficulty in recruiting a sufficient number of patients for our trials, including in particular our planned Phase 3 clinical trial in treatment-naive patients. The small population of patients, competition for these patients, the nature of the disease and limited trial sites may make it difficult for us to enroll enough patients to complete our clinical trials of APL-2 in PNH in a timely and cost-effective manner.

 

   

We rely on third parties to conduct our clinical trials and to manufacture and distribute our product candidates for our clinical trials. If these third parties do not perform satisfactorily, our development or commercialization efforts could be delayed or impaired.

 

   

We may seek to establish collaborations and, if we are not able to establish or maintain them on commercially reasonable terms, we may have to alter our development and commercialization plans.

 

   

If we fail to comply with our obligations under our existing and any future intellectual property licenses with third parties, we could lose license rights that are important to our business.

 

   

Even if we complete the necessary preclinical studies and clinical trials, the marketing approval process is expensive, time consuming and uncertain and may prevent us or any future collaborators from obtaining approvals for the commercialization of some or all of our product candidates. As a result, we cannot predict when or if, and in which territories, we, or any future collaborators, will obtain marketing approval to commercialize a product candidate.



 

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Our Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on September 25, 2009 under the name Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 6400 Westwind Way, Suite A, Crestwood, Kentucky 40014, and our telephone number is (502) 241-4114. Our website address is www.apellis.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus supplement. We have included our website address in this prospectus supplement solely as an inactive textual reference.

The Apellis logo is our trademark. The other trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this prospectus supplement are the property of their respective owners.



 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by Apellis

                 shares.

 

Option to purchase additional shares

We have granted the underwriters an option for a period of 30 days from the date of this prospectus supplement to purchase up to                 additional shares of common stock.

 

Common stock to be outstanding immediately following this offering

                 shares (or                  shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares).

 

Use of proceeds

We estimate that the net proceeds to us from this offering, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, will be approximately $            million, or $            million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full.

 

  We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing cash and cash equivalents, to fund clinical development of APL-2, including our ongoing Phase 3 clinical trials in GA, our ongoing and planned Phase 3 clinical trials in PNH, our ongoing and planned clinical development program in CAD, wAIHA, glomerular diseases with complement involvement and other indications, conduct research activities and for working capital and other general corporate purposes. See the “Use of Proceeds” section in this prospectus supplement for a more complete description of the intended use of proceeds from this offering.

 

Risk factors

You should read the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus supplement beginning on page S-12 and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 for a discussion of factors to consider carefully before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock.

 

Nasdaq Global Select Market symbol

“APLS”

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 56,289,307 shares of our common stock outstanding as of February 28, 2019 and excludes:

 

   

8,974,798 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of February 28, 2019, at a weighted-average exercise price of $9.07 per share;

 

   

2,630,470 and 972,164 additional shares of our common stock available for future issuance, as of February 28, 2019, under our 2017 stock incentive plan and our 2017 employee stock purchase plan, respectively as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of common stock reserved under these plans; and

 

   

14,064 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of February 28, 2019, at an exercise price of $5.484 per share.



 

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Unless otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus supplement assumes:

 

   

no exercise of the outstanding options or warrants described above; and

 

   

no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to                 additional shares of our common stock.



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before you decide to invest in our common stock, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, together with all other information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in our filings with the SEC that we have incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could suffer materially. In such event, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you might lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock, This Offering and Other Matters

If we receive regulatory approval for the use of APL-2 as a treatment for PNH or if the agreement with SFJ is terminated prior to receiving such approval in specified circumstances, we will be required to make substantial payments to SFJ pursuant to our development funding agreement. If we do not have sufficient funding or cash flow from our business to meet our payment obligations under the development funding agreement, SFJ could exercise its remedies as a holder of a first priority security interest in our assets and our business could be materially harmed.

If we receive regulatory approval for the use of APL-2 as a treatment for PNH, we will be required to make substantial payments to SFJ pursuant to our development funding agreement. In addition, if the agreement is terminated prior to obtaining regulatory approval for the treatment of PNH, under specified circumstances, we also will be required to make substantial payments to SFJ. Our ability to make these required payments depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to meet our obligations under the development funding agreement. If we are unable to generate such cash flow or to obtain additional funding through public or private equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations and licensing arrangements or other sources on acceptable terms or at all, we could default on our payment obligations to SFJ. We have granted SFJ a first priority security interest in all of our assets other than our intellectual property and the license agreements to which we are a party. If we are unable to meet our payment obligations to SFJ, SFJ may exercise its remedies as a holder of a first priority security interest, which would result in a loss of our assets and our business would be materially harmed.

The trading price of our common stock has been, and is likely to continue to be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control.

The stock market in general and the market for smaller pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies in particular have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, you may not be able to sell your common stock at or above the public offering price and you may lose some or all of your investment. The market price for our common stock may be influenced by many factors, including:

 

   

the timing and results of clinical trials of APL-2 and any other product candidates;

 

   

the success of existing or new competitive products or technologies;

 

   

regulatory actions with respect to our product candidates or our competitors’ products and product candidates;

 

   

announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, collaborations or capital commitments;

 

   

commencement or termination of collaborations for our development programs;

 

   

failure or discontinuation of any of our product candidates or development programs;

 

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results of clinical trials of product candidates of our competitors;

 

   

regulatory or legal developments in the United States and other countries;

 

   

developments or disputes concerning patent applications, issued patents or other proprietary rights;

 

   

the recruitment or departure of key personnel;

 

   

the level of expenses related to any of our product candidates or clinical development programs;

 

   

the results of our efforts to develop additional product candidates or products;

 

   

actual or anticipated changes in estimates as to financial results or development timelines;

 

   

recommendations by securities analysts;

 

   

announcement or expectation of additional financing efforts;

 

   

sales of our common stock by us, our insiders or other stockholders;

 

   

variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;

 

   

changes in estimates or recommendations by securities analysts, if any, that cover our stock;

 

   

changes in the structure of healthcare payment systems;

 

   

market conditions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors;

 

   

general economic, industry and market conditions; and

 

   

the other factors described in this “Risk Factors” section and in Part I, Item IA of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018.

If you purchase shares of common stock in this offering, you will suffer immediate dilution of your investment.

The price of our common stock to be sold in this offering is substantially higher than the net tangible book value per share of our common stock. Therefore, if you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you will pay a price per share that substantially exceeds our net tangible book value per share after this offering. Based on the public offering price of $            per share, you will experience immediate dilution of $            per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering and the public offering price. To the extent outstanding options are exercised, you will incur further dilution. For additional information on the dilution that you will experience immediately after this offering, see the section titled “Dilution.”

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may invest or spend the proceeds in ways with which you do not agree and in ways that may not yield a return on your investment.

Although we currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering in the manner described in the section titled “Use of Proceeds” in this prospectus supplement, our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering and could spend the proceeds in ways that do not improve our results of operations or enhance the value of our common stock. You will not have the opportunity to influence our decisions on how to use our net proceeds from this offering. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could result in financial losses that could harm our business, cause the price of our common stock to decline and delay the development of our product candidates. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value.

We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future. Accordingly, stockholders must rely on capital appreciation, if any, for any return on their investment.

We have never declared nor paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently plan to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the operation, development and growth of our business. In addition, the terms

 

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of our development funding agreement with SFJ and our term loan facility with Silicon Valley Bank preclude us from paying dividends, and any future debt or credit agreements may also preclude us from paying dividends. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.

We incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management will be required to devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives and corporate governance practices.

As a public company, we incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the listing requirements of the Nasdaq Global Select Market and other applicable securities rules and regulations impose various requirements on public companies, including establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and corporate governance practices. We expect that we will need to hire additional accounting, finance and other personnel in connection with our efforts to comply with the requirements of being a public company and our management and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time towards maintaining compliance with these requirements. These requirements will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly, especially as we are no longer an “emerging growth company”, as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, and are no longer able to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are “emerging growth companies” and were applicable to us prior to January 1, 2019.

Pursuant to SOX Section 404, as of January 1, 2019, we are required to furnish with our periodic Exchange Act reports a report by our management on our internal control over financial reporting. As of December 31, 2018, because we are no longer an emerging growth company, we are required to include with our annual report an attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm. To achieve compliance with SOX Section 404 within the prescribed period, we have been engaged in a process to document and evaluate our internal control over financial reporting, which has been, and will continued to be, both costly and challenging. In this regard, we will need to continue to dedicate internal resources, engage outside consultants and adopt a detailed work plan to assess and document the adequacy of internal control over financial reporting, continue steps to improve control processes as appropriate, validate through testing that controls are functioning as documented and implement a continuous reporting and improvement process for internal control over financial reporting. Despite our efforts, there is a risk that we will not be able to conclude, from time to time, that our internal control over financial reporting is effective. If we identify one or more material weaknesses, it could result in an adverse reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of confidence in the reliability of our financial statements.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND INDUSTRY DATA

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein contain forward-looking statements that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated herein by reference herein and therein, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenue, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management and expected market growth are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “would” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

These forward-looking statements in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein include, among other things, statements about:

 

   

our plans with respect to our ongoing and planned clinical trials for our product candidates, whether conducted by us or by any future collaborators, including the timing of dosing of patients, enrollment and completion of these trials and of the anticipated results from these trials;

 

   

our plans to initiate clinical trials of APL-2;

 

   

the potential clinical benefits and attributes of APL-2 and the inhibition of C3;

 

   

our plans to develop APL-2 for any additional indications;

 

   

our plans to research, develop and commercialize our current and future product candidates;

 

   

our plans to potentially seek to enter into collaborations for the development and commercialization of certain product candidates;

 

   

the potential benefits of any future collaboration;

 

   

the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for our product candidates;

 

   

the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of any products for which we receive marketing approval;

 

   

our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy;

 

   

our intellectual property position and strategy;

 

   

our ability to identify additional products or product candidates with significant commercial potential;

 

   

our expectations related to the use of proceeds from this offering;

 

   

our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

   

developments relating to our competitors and our industry; and

 

   

the impact of government laws and regulations.

We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. We have included important factors in the cautionary statements included in this prospectus supplement, particularly in the “Risk Factors” section and our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, which is incorporated herein by reference, that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements that we make. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, collaborations, joint ventures or investments that we may make or enter into.

 

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You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law,

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein include statistical and other industry and market data that we obtained from industry publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. All of the market data used in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein involves a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such data. We believe that the information from these industry publications, surveys and studies is reliable. The industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of important factors, including those described in the section titled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by the independent parties and by us.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that the net proceeds from our issuance and sale of                  shares of our common stock in this offering will be approximately $            million, or approximately $            million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full, in each case after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

We expect to use the net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing cash and cash equivalents, to fund clinical development of APL-2, including our ongoing Phase 3 clinical trials in GA, our ongoing and planned Phase 3 clinical trials in PNH, our ongoing and planned clinical development program in CAD, wAIHA, glomerular diseases with complement involvement and other indications, conduct research activities and for working capital and other general corporate purposes.

As of December 31, 2018, we had cash and cash equivalents of $176.3 million. In February 2019, we executed a development funding agreement pursuant to which SFJ agreed to pay us an initial $60 million payment from SFJ following execution of the agreement, and additional payments that are subject to the satisfaction of specific milestones. See “Prospectus Supplement Summary—Recent Developments—Development Funding Agreement with SFJ Pharmaceuticals” in this prospectus supplement for more information.

We believe that the net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing cash and cash equivalents and the initial $60 million payment that SFJ agreed to make, will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements at least into the fourth quarter of 2020. We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect.

We do not expect that the net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing cash and cash equivalents and the initial $60 million payment that SFJ agreed to make will be sufficient to enable us to complete our ongoing and planned Phase 3 clinical trials of APL-2 or to complete the development of APL-2 or any of our other product candidates.

This expected use of the net proceeds from this offering and our existing cash and cash equivalents represents our intentions based upon our current plans and business conditions. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures may vary significantly depending on numerous factors, including the progress of our development and commercialization efforts, the status of and results from clinical trials, any collaborations that we may enter into with third parties for our product candidates and any unforeseen cash needs. As a result, our management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of the net proceeds from this offering. We have no current agreements, commitments or understandings for any material acquisitions or licenses of any products, businesses or technologies.

Pending our use of the net proceeds from this offering, we intend to invest the net proceeds in money market funds, government-insured bank deposit accounts or U.S. government securities.

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared nor paid cash dividends on our common stock. We currently intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business. In addition, our development funding agreement with SFJ and our term loan facility with Silicon Valley Bank contain restrictive covenants that prohibit us, subject to certain exceptions, from paying dividends on our common stock, and future debt securities or other financing arrangements could contain similar or more restrictive negative covenants. We do not intend to pay cash dividends in respect of our common stock in the foreseeable future.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted immediately to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share you will pay in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock after this offering.

Our historical net tangible book value as of December 31, 2018 was $161.0 million, or $2.86 per share of common stock. Our historical net tangible book value is the amount of our total tangible assets less our total liabilities. Historical net tangible book value per share represents our historical net tangible book value divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2018.

After giving effect to the issuance and sale of                  shares of common stock in this offering at the public offering price of $            per share, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of December 31, 2018 would have been $            million, or $            per share. This represents an immediate increase of $            in as adjusted net tangible book value per share to existing stockholders and immediate dilution of $            in as adjusted net tangible book value per share to investors purchasing shares of our common stock in this offering. Dilution per share to investors purchasing shares of our common stock in this offering is determined by subtracting as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the public offering price per share paid by investors purchasing shares of our common stock in this offering. The following table illustrates this dilution to the investors purchasing shares of common stock in this offering without giving effect to any exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares.

 

Public offering price per share

      $                

Historical net tangible book value per share as of December 31, 2018

   $ 2.86     

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to investors purchasing shares of our common stock in this offering

                      
  

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering

                      
     

 

 

 

Dilution per share to investors purchasing shares of our common stock in this offering

      $                
     

 

 

 

If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase up to an                  additional shares in full, the as adjusted net tangible book value will increase to $            per share, representing an immediate increase to existing stockholders of $            per share and an immediate dilution of $            per share to investors purchasing shares of our common stock in this offering.

The table above excludes:

 

   

7,497,734 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of December 31, 2018, at a weighted-average exercise price of $8.09 per share;

 

   

1,521,920 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options granted after December 31, 2018, at a weighted average exercise price of $13.80 per share;

 

   

4,032,390 and 972,164 additional shares of our common stock available for future issuance, as of December 31, 2018, under our 2017 stock incentive plan and our 2017 employee stock purchase plan, respectively, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of common stock reserved under these plans; and

 

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14,064 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of December 31, 2018, at an exercise price of $5.484 per share.

To the extent that stock options or warrants are exercised, new stock options are issued under our equity incentive plans, or we issue additional shares of common stock in the future, there will be further dilution to investors participating in this offering.

 

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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME AND ESTATE TAX CONSIDERATIONS FOR NON-U.S. HOLDERS OF OUR COMMON STOCK

The following is a discussion of the material U.S. federal income and estate tax considerations applicable to non-U.S. holders with respect to their ownership and disposition of shares of our common stock. This discussion is for informational purposes only and is not tax advice. Accordingly, all prospective non-U.S. holders of our common stock should consult their own tax advisors with respect to the U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our common stock. For purposes of this discussion, a “non-U.S. holder” means a beneficial owner (other than a partnership or other entity or arrangement classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) of our common stock who is not for U.S. federal income tax purposes:

 

   

an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

   

a corporation or any other organization taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, created or organized in the United States or under the laws of the United States or of any state thereof or the District of Columbia;

 

   

an estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or

 

   

a trust if (1) a U.S. court is able to exercise primary supervision over the trust’s administration and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all of the trust’s substantial decisions or (2) the trust has a valid election in effect under applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations to be treated as a U.S. person.

This discussion is based on current provisions of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, which we refer to as the Code, existing and proposed U.S. Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder, current administrative rulings and judicial decisions, all as in effect as of the date of this prospectus supplement, all of which are subject to change or to differing interpretation, possibly with retroactive effect. Any change could alter the tax consequences to non-U.S. holders described in this prospectus supplement. In addition, there can be no assurance that the Internal Revenue Service, which we refer to as the IRS, will not challenge one or more of the tax consequences described herein. We assume in this discussion that a non-U.S. holder holds shares of our common stock as a capital asset, generally property held for investment.

This discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income and estate taxation that may be relevant to a particular non-U.S. holder in light of that non-U.S. holder’s individual circumstances nor does it address any aspects of U.S. state, local or non-U.S. taxes, the alternative minimum tax, or the Medicare tax on net investment income. This discussion also does not consider any specific facts or circumstances that may apply to a non-U.S. holder and does not address the special tax rules applicable to particular non-U.S. holders, such as:

 

   

insurance companies;

 

   

tax-exempt organizations;

 

   

financial institutions;

 

   

brokers or dealers in securities;

 

   

pension plans;

 

   

controlled foreign corporations;

 

   

passive foreign investment companies;

 

   

owners that hold our common stock as part of a straddle, hedge, conversion transaction, synthetic security or other integrated investment;

 

   

persons who acquired our common stock pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option or otherwise as compensation; and

 

   

certain U.S. expatriates.

 

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In addition, this discussion does not address the tax treatment of partnerships or persons who hold our common stock through partnerships or other entities or arrangements classified as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. A partner in a partnership or other pass-through entity that will hold our common stock should consult his, her or its own tax advisor regarding the tax consequences of acquiring, holding and disposing of our common stock through a partnership or other pass-through entity, as applicable.

Distributions on Our Common Stock

As discussed under “Dividend Policy” above, we do not expect to make cash dividends to holders of our common stock in the foreseeable future. Distributions, if any, on our common stock generally will constitute dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent paid from our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles. If a distribution exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits, the excess will be treated as a tax-free return of the non-U.S. holder’s investment, up to such holder’s tax basis in the common stock. Any remaining excess will be treated as capital gain, subject to the tax treatment described below in “Gain on Sale, Exchange or Other Taxable Disposition of Our Common Stock.” Any such distributions will also be subject to the discussion below under the section titled “Withholding and Information Reporting Requirements—FATCA.”

Dividends paid to a non-U.S. holder generally will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence.

Dividends that are treated as effectively connected with a trade or business conducted by a non-U.S. holder within the United States and, if an applicable income tax treaty so provides, that are attributable to a permanent establishment or a fixed base maintained by the non-U.S. holder within the United States, are generally exempt from the 30% withholding tax if the non-U.S. holder satisfies applicable certification and disclosure requirements (generally including provision of a valid IRS Form W-8ECI (or applicable successor form) certifying that the dividends are effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States). However, such U.S. effectively connected income, net of specified deductions and credits, is generally taxed at the same graduated U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to United States persons (as defined in the Code). Any U.S. effectively connected income received by a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also, under certain circumstances, be subject to an additional “branch profits tax” at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence.

A non-U.S. holder of our common stock who claims the benefit of an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence generally will be required to provide a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or successor form) and satisfy applicable certification and other requirements. Non-U.S. holders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under a relevant income tax treaty.

A non-U.S. holder that is eligible for a reduced rate of U.S. withholding tax under an income tax treaty may obtain a refund or credit of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing the required information with the IRS.

Gain on Sale, Exchange or Other Taxable Disposition of Our Common Stock

In general, a non-U.S. holder will not be subject to any U.S. federal income tax on any gain realized upon such holder’s sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of shares of our common stock unless:

 

   

the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States and, if an applicable income tax treaty so provides, is attributable to a permanent establishment or a fixed base maintained by such non-U.S. holder in the United States, in which case

 

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the non-U.S. holder generally will be taxed at the graduated U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to United States persons (as defined in the Code) and, if the non-U.S. holder is a foreign corporation, the branch profits tax described above in “Distributions on Our Common Stock” also may apply;

 

   

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more in the taxable year of the taxable disposition and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to a 30% tax (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence) on the net gain derived from the taxable disposition, which may be offset by certain U.S. source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder, if any; or

 

   

we are, or have been, at any time during the five-year period preceding such taxable disposition (or the non-U.S. holder’s holding period, if shorter) a “U.S. real property holding corporation,” unless our common stock is regularly traded on an established securities market and the non-U.S. holder holds no more than 5% of our outstanding common stock, directly or indirectly, during the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the taxable disposition or the period that the non-U.S. holder held our common stock. If we are determined to be a U.S. real property holding corporation and the foregoing exception does not apply, then the non-U.S. holder generally will be taxed on its net gain derived from the disposition at the graduated U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to United States persons (as defined in the Code). Generally, a corporation is a U.S. real property holding corporation only if the fair market value of its U.S. real property interests equals or exceeds 50% of the sum of the fair market value of its worldwide real property interests plus its other assets used or held for use in a trade or business. Although there can be no assurance, we do not believe that we are, or have been, a U.S. real property holding corporation, or that we are likely to become one in the future. No assurance can be provided that our common stock will be regularly traded on an established securities market for purposes of the rules described above.

U.S. Federal Estate Tax

Shares of our common stock that are owned or treated as owned at the time of death by an individual who is not a citizen or resident of the United States, as specifically defined for U.S. federal estate tax purposes, are considered U.S. situs assets and will be included in the individual’s gross estate for U.S. federal estate tax purposes. Such shares, therefore, may be subject to U.S. federal estate tax, unless an applicable estate tax or other treaty provides otherwise.

Backup Withholding and Information Reporting

We must report annually to the IRS and to each non-U.S. holder the gross amount of the distributions on our common stock paid to such holder and the tax withheld, if any, with respect to such distributions. Non-U.S. holders may have to comply with specific certification procedures to establish that the holder is not a United States person (as defined in the Code) in order to avoid backup withholding at the applicable rate with respect to dividends on our common stock. Generally, a non-U.S. holder will comply with such procedures if it provides a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable Form W-8) or otherwise meets the documentary evidence requirements for establishing that it is a not a United States person or otherwise establishes an exemption. Dividends paid to non-U.S. holders subject to the U.S. withholding tax, as described above in “Distributions on Our Common Stock,” generally will be exempt from U.S. backup withholding.

Information reporting and backup withholding will generally apply to the proceeds of a disposition of our common stock by a non-U.S. holder effected by or through the U.S. office of any broker, U.S. or foreign, unless the holder certifies its status as a non-U.S. holder and satisfies certain other requirements, or otherwise establishes an exemption. Generally, information reporting and backup withholding will not apply to a payment of disposition proceeds to a non-U.S. holder where the transaction is effected outside the United States through a non-U.S. office of a broker. However, for information reporting purposes, dispositions effected through a

 

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non-U.S. office of a broker with substantial U.S. ownership or operations generally will be treated in a manner similar to dispositions effected through a U.S. office of a broker. Non-U.S. holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the application of the information reporting and backup withholding rules to them.

Copies of information returns may be made available to the tax authorities of the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is incorporated under the provisions of a specific treaty or agreement.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules from a payment to a non-U.S. holder can be refunded or credited against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, if any, provided that an appropriate claim is timely filed with the IRS.

Withholding and Information Reporting Requirements—FATCA

Provisions of the Code commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA, generally impose a U.S. federal withholding tax at a rate of 30% on payments of dividends on, or gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of, our common stock paid to foreign entities, unless (i) if the foreign entity is a “foreign financial institution,” such foreign entity undertakes certain due diligence, reporting, withholding, and certification obligations, (ii) if the foreign entity is not a “foreign financial institution,” such foreign entity identifies certain of its U.S. investors, if any, or (iii) the foreign entity is otherwise exempt under FATCA.

Withholding under FATCA generally will apply to payments of dividends on our common stock. While withholding under FATCA may apply to payments of gross proceeds from a sale or other disposition of our common stock, under recently proposed U.S. Treasury Regulations, withholding on payments of gross proceeds is not required. Although such regulations are not final, applicable withholding agents may rely on the proposed regulations until final regulations are issued.

If withholding under FATCA is required on any payment related to our common stock, investors not otherwise subject to withholding (or that otherwise would be entitled to a reduced rate of withholding) on such payment may be required to seek a refund or credit from the IRS. An intergovernmental agreement between the United States and an applicable foreign country may modify these rules. Non-U.S. holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the possible implications of FATCA on their investment in our common stock and the entities through which they hold our common stock.

The preceding discussion of material U.S. federal tax considerations is for informational purposes only. It is not legal or tax advice. Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors regarding the particular U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. tax consequences of purchasing, holding and disposing of our common stock, including the consequences of any proposed changes in applicable laws.

 

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UNDERWRITING

Citigroup Global Markets Inc., J.P. Morgan Securities LLC and Cowen and Company, LLC are acting as joint book-running managers of the offering and as representatives of the underwriters named below. Subject to the terms and conditions stated in the underwriting agreement dated the date of this prospectus supplement, each underwriter named below has severally agreed to purchase, and we have agreed to sell to that underwriter, the number of shares set forth opposite the underwriter’s name.

 

Underwriter

   Number of
Shares
 

Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

  

J.P. Morgan Securities LLC

  

Cowen and Company, LLC

  

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

  
  

 

 

 

Total

                               
  

 

 

 

The underwriting agreement provides that the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the shares included in this offering are subject to approval of legal matters by counsel and to other conditions. The underwriters are obligated to purchase all the shares (other than those covered by the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares described below) if they purchase any of the shares.

Shares sold by the underwriters to the public will initially be offered at the public offering price set forth on the cover of this prospectus supplement. Any shares sold by the underwriters to securities dealers may be sold at a discount from the public offering price not to exceed $            per share. If all the shares are not sold at the initial offering price, the underwriters may change the offering price and the other selling terms. Sales of shares made outside of the United States may be made by affiliates of the underwriters.

We have granted to the underwriters an option, exercisable for 30 days from the date of this prospectus supplement, to purchase up to             additional shares at the public offering price less the underwriting discount. To the extent the option is exercised, each underwriter must purchase a number of additional shares approximately proportionate to that underwriter’s initial purchase commitment. Any shares issued or sold under the option will be issued and sold on the same terms and conditions as the other shares that are the subject of this offering.

We and our officers, directors and certain of our stockholders have agreed that, subject to specified limited exceptions, for a period of 60 days from the date of this prospectus supplement, we and they will not, without the prior written consent of Citigroup Global Markets Inc., J.P. Morgan Securities LLC and Cowen and Company, LLC, dispose of or hedge any shares or any securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock. Citigroup Global Markets Inc., J.P. Morgan Securities LLC and Cowen and Company, LLC, in their sole discretion may release any of the securities subject to these lock-up agreements at any time without notice.

The shares are listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “APLS.”

The following table shows the underwriting discounts and commissions that we are to pay to the underwriters in connection with this offering. These amounts are shown assuming both no exercise and full exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares.

 

     Paid by Apellis  
         No Exercise              Full Exercise      

Per share

   $                        $                    

Total

   $                        $                    

 

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We estimate that our portion of the total expenses of this offering will be approximately $            . We have also agreed to reimburse the underwriters for certain FINRA-related expenses and other expenses incurred by them in connection with this offering in an amount up to $            .

In connection with the offering, the underwriters may purchase and sell shares in the open market. Purchases and sales in the open market may include short sales, purchases to cover short positions, which may include purchases pursuant to the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares, and stabilizing purchases.

 

   

Short sales involve secondary market sales by the underwriters of a greater number of shares than they are required to purchase in the offering.

 

   

“Covered” short sales are sales of shares in an amount up to the number of shares represented by the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares.

 

   

“Naked” short sales are sales of shares in an amount in excess of the number of shares represented by the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares.

 

   

Covering transactions involve purchases of shares either pursuant to the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares or in the open market in order to cover short positions.

 

   

To close a naked short position, the underwriters must purchase shares in the open market. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriters are concerned that there may be downward pressure on the price of the shares in the open market after pricing that could adversely affect investors who purchase in the offering.

 

   

To close a covered short position, the underwriters must purchase shares in the open market or must exercise the option to purchase additional shares. In determining the source of shares to close the covered short position, the underwriters will consider, among other things, the price of shares available for purchase in the open market as compared to the price at which they may purchase shares through the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares.

 

   

Stabilizing transactions involve bids to purchase shares so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum.

Purchases to cover short positions and stabilizing purchases, as well as other purchases by the underwriters for their own accounts, may have the effect of preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the shares. They may also cause the price of the shares to be higher than the price that would otherwise exist in the open market in the absence of these transactions. The underwriters may conduct these transactions on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, in the over-the-counter market or otherwise. If the underwriters commence any of these transactions, they may discontinue them at any time.

Conflicts of Interest and Other Relationships

The underwriters are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include securities trading, commercial and investment banking, financial advisory, investment management, principal investment, hedging, financing and brokerage activities. The underwriters and their respective affiliates have in the past performed commercial banking, investment banking and advisory services for us from time to time for which they have received customary fees and reimbursement of expenses and may, from time to time, engage in transactions with and perform services for us in the ordinary course of their business for which they may receive customary fees and reimbursement of expenses. Citigroup Global Markets Inc. is the sales agent under an equity distribution agreement dated as of December 28, 2018, by and between us and Citigroup Global Markets Inc. Under the equity distribution agreement, we may offer and sell, from time to time, shares of our common stock through Citigroup Global Markets Inc. through an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act. In the ordinary course of their various business activities, the underwriters and their respective affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (which may include bank loans and/or credit default swaps) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers and may at any time hold long and short positions in such securities and instruments. Such investments and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of ours or our affiliates. The underwriters and their affiliates may also make

 

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investment recommendations and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or financial instruments and may hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long and/or short positions in such securities and instruments.

We have agreed to indemnify the underwriters against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments the underwriters may be required to make because of any of those liabilities.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Canada

The shares offered in this prospectus supplement may be sold only to purchasers purchasing, or deemed to be purchasing, as principal that are accredited investors, as defined in National Instrument 45-106 Prospectus Exemptions or subsection 73.3(1) of the Securities Act (Ontario), and are permitted clients, as defined in National Instrument 31-103 Registration Requirements, Exemptions and Ongoing Registrant Obligations. Any resale of the shares of common stock must be made in accordance with an exemption from, or in a transaction not subject to, the prospectus requirements of applicable securities laws.

Securities legislation in certain provinces or territories of Canada may provide a purchaser with remedies for rescission or damages if this prospectus supplement (including any amendment thereto) contains a misrepresentation, provided that the remedies for rescission or damages are exercised by the purchaser within the time limit prescribed by the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory. The purchaser should refer to any applicable provisions of the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory for particulars of these rights or consult with a legal advisor.

Pursuant to section 3A.3 of National Instrument 33-105 Underwriting Conflicts (NI 33-105), the underwriters are not required to comply with the disclosure requirements of NI 33-105 regarding underwriter conflicts of interest in connection with this offering.

Notice to Prospective Investors in the European Economic Area, or EEA

In relation to each member state of the EEA that has implemented the Prospectus Directive (each, a relevant member state), with effect from and including the date on which the Prospectus Directive is implemented in that relevant member state (the relevant implementation date), an offer of shares described in this prospectus supplement may not be made to the public in that relevant member state other than:

 

   

to any legal entity which is a qualified investor as defined in the Prospectus Directive;

 

   

to fewer than 100 or, if the relevant member state has implemented the relevant provision of the 2010 PD Amending Directive, 150 natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined in the Prospectus Directive), as permitted under the Prospectus Directive, subject to obtaining the prior consent of the relevant Dealer or Dealers nominated by us for any such offer; or

 

   

in any other circumstances falling within Article 3(2) of the Prospectus Directive,

provided that no such offer of shares shall require us or any underwriter to publish a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Directive.

For purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer of securities to the public” in any relevant member state means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and the shares to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe for the shares, as the expression may be varied in that member state by any measure implementing the Prospectus Directive in that member state, and the expression “Prospectus Directive” means Directive 2003/71/EC (and amendments thereto, including the 2010 PD Amending Directive, to the extent implemented in the relevant member state) and includes any relevant implementing measure in the relevant member state. The expression 2010 PD Amending Directive means Directive 2010/73/EU.

 

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The sellers of the shares have not authorized and do not authorize the making of any offer of shares through any financial intermediary on their behalf, other than offers made by the underwriters with a view to the final placement of the shares as contemplated in this prospectus supplement. Accordingly, no purchaser of the shares, other than the underwriters, is authorized to make any further offer of the shares on behalf of the sellers or the underwriters.

Notice to Prospective Investors in the United Kingdom

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are only being distributed to, and is only directed at, persons in the United Kingdom that are qualified investors within the meaning of Article 2(1)(e) of the Prospectus Directive that are also (i) investment professionals falling within Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005, or the Order, or (ii) high net worth entities, and other persons to whom it may lawfully be communicated, falling within Article 49(2)(a) to (d) of the Order (each such person being referred to as a “relevant person”). This prospectus supplement and its contents are confidential and should not be distributed, published or reproduced (in whole or in part) or disclosed by recipients to any other persons in the United Kingdom. Any person in the United Kingdom that is not a relevant person should not act or rely on this document or any of its contents.

Notice to Prospective Investors in France

Neither this prospectus supplement nor any other offering material relating to the shares described in this prospectus supplement has been submitted to the clearance procedures of the Autorité des Marchés Financiers or of the competent authority of another member state of the EEA and notified to the Autorité des Marchés Financiers. The shares have not been offered or sold and will not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, to the public in France. Neither this prospectus supplement nor any other offering material relating to the shares has been or will be:

 

   

released, issued, distributed or caused to be released, issued or distributed to the public in France; or

 

   

used in connection with any offer for subscription or sale of the shares to the public in France.

Such offers, sales and distributions will be made in France only:

 

   

to qualified investors (investisseurs qualifiés) and/or to a restricted circle of investors (cercle restreint d’investisseurs), in each case investing for their own account, all as defined in, and in accordance with articles L.411-2, D.411-1, D.411-2, D.734-1, D.744-1, D.754-1 and D.764-1of the French Code monétaire et financier;

 

   

to investment services providers authorized to engage in portfolio management on behalf of third parties; or

 

   

in a transaction that, in accordance with article L.411-2-II-1° -or-2° -or 3° of the French Code monétaire et financier and article 211-2 of the General Regulations (Règlement Général) of the Autorité des Marchés Financiers, does not constitute a public offer (appel public à l’épargne).

The shares may be resold directly or indirectly, only in compliance with articles L.411-1, L.411-2, L.412-1 and L.621-8 through L.621-8-3 of the French Code monétaire et financier.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Hong Kong

The shares may not be offered or sold in Hong Kong by means of any document other than (i) in circumstances which do not constitute an offer to the public within the meaning of the Companies Ordinance (Cap. 32, Laws of Hong Kong), or (ii) to “professional investors” within the meaning of the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571, Laws of Hong Kong) and any rules made thereunder, or (iii) in other circumstances

 

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which do not result in the document being a “prospectus” within the meaning of the Companies Ordinance (Cap. 32, Laws of Hong Kong) and no advertisement, invitation or document relating to the shares may be issued or may be in the possession of any person for the purpose of issue (in each case whether in Hong Kong or elsewhere), which is directed at, or the contents of which are likely to be accessed or read by, the public in Hong Kong (except if permitted to do so under the laws of Hong Kong) other than with respect to shares which are or are intended to be disposed of only to persons outside Hong Kong or only to “professional investors” within the meaning of the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571, Laws of Hong Kong) and any rules made thereunder.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Japan

The shares offered in this prospectus supplement have not been and will not be registered under the Financial Instruments and Exchange Law of Japan. The shares have not been offered or sold and will not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to or for the account of any resident of Japan (including any corporation or other entity organized under the laws of Japan), except (i) pursuant to an exemption from the registration requirements of the Financial Instruments and Exchange Law and (ii) in compliance with any other applicable requirements of Japanese law.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Singapore

This prospectus supplement has not been registered as a prospectus with the Monetary Authority of Singapore. Accordingly, this prospectus supplement and any other document or material in connection with the offer or sale, or invitation for subscription or purchase, of the shares may not be circulated or distributed, nor may the shares be offered or sold, or be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase, whether directly or indirectly, to persons in Singapore other than (i) to an institutional investor under Section 274 of the Securities and Futures Act, Chapter 289 of Singapore, or the SFA, (ii) to a relevant person pursuant to Section 275(1), or any person pursuant to Section 275(1A), and in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 275 of the SFA or (iii) otherwise pursuant to, and in accordance with the conditions of, any other applicable provision of the SFA, in each case subject to compliance with conditions set forth in the SFA.

Where the shares are subscribed or purchased under Section 275 of the SFA by a relevant person which is:

 

   

a corporation (which is not an accredited investor (as defined in Section 4A of the SFA)) the sole business of which is to hold investments and the entire share capital of which is owned by one or more individuals, each of whom is an accredited investor; or

 

   

a trust (where the trustee is not an accredited investor) whose sole purpose is to hold investments and each beneficiary of the trust is an individual who is an accredited investor,

 

   

shares, debentures and units of shares and debentures of that corporation or the beneficiaries’ rights and interest (howsoever described) in that trust shall not be transferred within six months after that corporation or that trust has acquired the shares pursuant to an offer made under Section 275 of the SFA except:

 

   

to an institutional investor (for corporations, under Section 274 of the SFA) or to a relevant person defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA, or to any person pursuant to an offer that is made on terms that such shares, debentures and units of shares and debentures of that corporation or such rights and interest in that trust are acquired at a consideration of not less than $200,000 (or its equivalent in a foreign currency) for each transaction, whether such amount is to be paid for in cash or by exchange of securities or other assets, and further for corporations, in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 275 of the SFA;

 

   

where no consideration is or will be given for the transfer; or

 

   

where the transfer is by operation of law.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the shares of our common stock offered hereby is being passed upon for us by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP. Cooley LLP is acting as counsel for the underwriters in connection with this offering.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the Company) included in the Company’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2018 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their reports thereon (which contains an explanatory paragraph describing conditions that raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as described in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements), which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and elsewhere in the registration statement. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at http://www.apellis.com/. Our website is not a part of this prospectus supplement and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement.

This prospectus supplement is part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC. The registration statement contains more information than this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus regarding us and the securities, including certain exhibits and schedules. You can obtain a copy of the registration statement from the SEC at the address listed above or from the SEC’s internet site.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus incorporate by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-38276) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed) until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed.

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 filed on February 26, 2019;

 

   

The information specifically incorporated by reference into the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017 from our definitive proxy statement for the 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders filed on April 25, 2018;

 

   

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on February 28, 2019 and March 4, 2019; and

 

   

The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on November 3, 2017, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

You may request a copy of these documents at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or phone number:

Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

6400 Westwind Way, Suite A

Crestwood, Kentucky 40014

(502) 241-4114

 

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PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

$300,000,000

of

DEBT SECURITIES

COMMON STOCK

PREFERRED STOCK

UNITS

WARRANTS

Offered by the Company

and

12,256,035 Shares of Common Stock

Offered by Selling Stockholders

 

 

We may offer and sell up to $300,000,000 in the aggregate of securities from time to time in one or more offerings. This prospectus may also be used to offer up to 12,256,035 shares of our common stock for the accounts of persons other than us, which we refer to in this prospectus as “selling stockholders.” This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide the specific terms of these securities in supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained or incorporated by reference in this document. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement before you invest.

We and the selling stockholders may offer these securities in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of offering. In a prospectus supplement relating to any sales by the selling stockholders, we will identify the selling stockholders and the number of shares of our common stock that the selling stockholders will be selling. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale, if any, of common stock by the selling stockholders.

The securities may be sold directly to you, through agents, or through underwriters and dealers. If agents, underwriters or dealers are used to sell the securities, we will name them and describe their compensation in a prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “APLS.”

 

 

Investing in these securities involves certain risks. See “Risk Factors” included on page 6 of this prospectus, in any accompanying prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase these securities.


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We may amend or supplement this prospectus from time to time by filing amendments or supplements as required. We urge you to read the entire prospectus, any amendments or supplements, any free writing prospectuses , and any documents incorporated by reference carefully before you make your investment decision.

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is February 26, 2019.

 


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     2  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

     2  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     3  

APELLIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

     5  

RISK FACTORS

     6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     7  

SELLING STOCKHOLDERS

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     9  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     19  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     26  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     27  

FORMS OF SECURITIES

     28  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     30  

LEGAL MATTERS

     34  

EXPERTS

     34  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the “SEC”, under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $300,000,000. In addition, the selling stockholders may from time to time sell up to 12,256,035 shares of our common stock in one or more offerings.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we, or the selling stockholder, as applicable, sell securities, we will provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in any documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus and, accordingly, to the extent inconsistent, information in this prospectus is superseded by the information in the prospectus supplement. You should read both this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 2 of this prospectus.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. Neither we nor the selling stockholders have authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in this prospectus or such accompanying prospectus supplement or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to “we,” “our” and “us” refer, collectively, to Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiaries. The Apellis logo is our trademark. The other trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at http://www.apellis.com/. Our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information about us and our consolidated subsidiary and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-38276) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed) until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed.

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, including the information specifically incorporated by reference into the Annual Report on Form 10-K from our definitive proxy statement for the 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders;

 

   

Our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, June 30 and September 30, 2018;

 

   

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K dated March 30, 2018, June 4, 2018, September 4, 2018 and December 20, 2018; and

 

   

The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on November 3, 2017, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

You may request a copy of these documents, which will be provided to you at no cost, by writing or telephoning us using the following contact information:

6400 Westwind Way, Suite A

Crestwood, KY 40014

(502) 241-4114

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus include forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, contained in this herein and therein, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenue, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management and expected market growth are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “would” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

These forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements about:

 

   

our plans with respect to our ongoing and planned clinical trials for our product candidates, whether conducted by us or by any future collaborators, including the timing of dosing of patients, enrollment and completion of these trials and of the anticipated results from these trials;

 

   

our plans to initiate clinical trials of APL-2;

 

   

the potential clinical benefits and attributes of APL-2 and the inhibition of C3;

 

   

our plans to develop APL-2 for any additional indications;

 

   

our plans to research, develop and commercialize our current and future product candidates;

 

   

our plans to potentially seek to enter into collaborations for the development and commercialization of certain product candidates;

 

   

the potential benefits of any future collaboration;

 

   

the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for our product candidates;

 

   

the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of any products for which we receive marketing approval;

 

   

our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy;

 

   

our intellectual property position and strategy;

 

   

our ability to identify additional products or product candidates with significant commercial potential;

 

   

our expectations related to the use of proceeds from this offering;

 

   

our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

   

developments relating to our competitors and our industry; and

 

   

the impact of government laws and regulations.

We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. You are cautioned that these forward-looking statements are only predictions and are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are referenced in the section of any accompanying prospectus supplement entitled “Risk Factors.” You should also carefully review the risk factors and cautionary statements described in the other documents we file from time to time with the SEC, specifically our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and our Current Reports on Form 8-K. Our forward-looking

 

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statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, collaborations, joint ventures or investments that we may make or enter into.

You should read this prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

 

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APELLIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of novel therapeutic compounds to treat disease through the inhibition of the complement system, which is an integral component of the immune system, at the level of C3, the central protein in the complement cascade. We believe that this approach can result in broad inhibition of the principal pathways of the complement system and has the potential to effectively control a broad array of complement-dependent autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

We have the most advanced clinical program targeting C3 with Phase 3 clinical trials of our lead product candidate, APL-2, in multiple indications. We believe that APL-2 has the potential to be a best-in-class treatment that may address the limitations of existing treatment options or provide a treatment option where there currently is none. APL-2 has already shown activity that we believe is clinically meaningful in clinical trials for four distinct medical conditions – geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration, or GA; paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, or PNH; cold agglutinin disease, or CAD; and warm antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia, or wAIHA. In addition to trials for these indications, we are also conducting clinical trials of APL-2 in patients with glomerular diseases with complement involvement.

We initiated a Phase 3 clinical program consisting of two Phase 3 clinical trials evaluating APL-2 in patients with GA in September 2018. In our Phase 2 clinical trial of APL-2 in patients with GA, treatment with APL-2 resulted in a significant reduction in the rate of GA lesion growth over 12 months. In June 2018, we initiated a Phase 3 clinical program evaluating APL-2 in patients with PNH who are anemic while being treated with eculizumab, an approved therapy for PNH and mid-2019 plan to initiate a second Phase 3 clinical trial in patients with PNH who have not been treated with eculizumab. In our ongoing Phase 1b trials in PNH, APL-2 has achieved improvements in transfusion dependency, hemoglobin levels and other hematological indicators that we believe are clinically meaningful. In our ongoing Phase 2 clinical trials of APL-2 in patients with CAD and wAIHA, patients with CAD and with wAIHA have achieved reduced extravascular hemolysis, measured by increased hemoglobin levels, reduced reticulocytes and bilirubin levels, and reduced intravascular hemolysis, measured by reduced lactate dehydrogenase. We plan to continue clinical development of APL-2 for these indications. We are developing novel compounds targeting C3 and plan to conduct clinical trials of these compounds in additional complement-dependent diseases. We hold worldwide commercialization rights to APL-2 and those other novel compounds targeting C3.

Our principal executive offices are located at 6400 Westwind Way, Suite A, Crestwood, KY 40014, and our telephone number is (502) 241-4114.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, including the risk factors set forth in our filings with the SEC that are incorporated by reference herein, including the risk factors in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017 and our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, June 30, and September 30, 2018, before making an investment decision pursuant to this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement relating to a specific offering.

Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by any or all of these risks or by additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial that may adversely affect us in the future.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus for general corporate purposes unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. General corporate purposes may include working capital and capital expenditures, research and development expenses, including clinical trial costs, general and administrative expenses, potential acquisition of, or investment in, companies, technologies, products or assets that complement our business, and repayment and refinancing of debt. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds in investment-grade, interest-bearing securities until they are used for their stated purpose. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds.

We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of any shares of common stock offered and sold by the selling stockholders. Any selling stockholder may pay any underwriting discounts and commissions and expenses incurred by such selling stockholder for brokerage, accounting, tax, or legal services or any other expenses incurred by such selling stockholder in disposing of the shares. We may bear all other costs, fees and expenses incurred in effecting the registration of the shares covered by this prospectus, including, without limitation, all registration and filing fees, Nasdaq Global Select Market listing fees, and fees and expenses of our counsel and our accountants.

 

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SELLING STOCKHOLDERS

This prospectus relates to the possible resale from time to time by certain of our existing stockholders, which we refer to in this prospectus as the “selling stockholders,” of up to 12,256,035 shares of our common stock that were issued and outstanding prior to the original date of filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

The selling stockholders may not sell any shares pursuant to this prospectus until we have identified the applicable selling stockholders and the shares that may be offered for resale by such selling stockholders in a subsequent prospectus supplement. However, the selling stockholders may sell or transfer all or a portion of their shares pursuant to any available exemption from the registration requirements of the Securities Act.

If any selling stockholder offers shares in any future offering, the applicable prospectus supplement will set forth the name of each such selling stockholder, the nature of any position, office or other material relationship that the selling stockholder has had with us or any of our predecessors or affiliates during the three years prior to the date of the applicable prospectus supplement, the number of our shares of common stock owned by the selling stockholder before and after the offering and the number of our shares of common stock to be offered by the selling stockholder.

We will pay all registration expenses with respect to the shares of our common stock being registered for resale by the selling stockholders, including registration fees, printing expenses, fees and disbursements of our counsel and accountants, and reasonable fees and disbursements of one counsel representing the selling stockholders. The selling stockholders will pay any underwriting or broker discounts and commissions incurred by the selling stockholders in selling their shares of common stock.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may offer debt securities which may be senior or subordinated. We refer to the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities collectively as debt securities. The following description summarizes the general terms and provisions of the debt securities. We will describe the specific terms of the debt securities and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions summarized below apply to any series of debt securities in the prospectus supplement relating to the series and any applicable free writing prospectus that we authorize to be delivered. When we refer to “the Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” in this section, we mean Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., excluding, unless the context otherwise requires or as otherwise expressly stated, our subsidiary.

We may issue senior debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a senior indenture to be entered into between us and a senior trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the senior trustee. We may issue subordinated debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a subordinated indenture to be entered into between us and a subordinated trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the subordinated trustee. The forms of senior indenture and subordinated indenture are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. Together, the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are referred to as the indentures and, together, the senior trustee and the subordinated trustee are referred to as the trustees. This prospectus briefly outlines some of the provisions of the indentures. The following summary of the material provisions of the indentures is qualified in its entirety by the provisions of the indentures, including definitions of certain terms used in the indentures. Wherever we refer to particular sections or defined terms of the indentures, those sections or defined terms are incorporated by reference in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement. You should review the indentures that are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part for additional information.

None of the indentures will limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. The applicable indenture will provide that debt securities may be issued up to an aggregate principal amount authorized from time to time by us and may be payable in any currency or currency unit designated by us or in amounts determined by reference to an index.

General

The senior debt securities will constitute our unsubordinated general obligations and will rank pari passu with our other unsubordinated obligations. The subordinated debt securities will constitute our subordinated general obligations and will be junior in right of payment to our senior indebtedness (including senior debt securities), as described under the heading “—Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities—Subordination.” The debt securities will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiary unless such subsidiary expressly guarantee such debt securities.

The debt securities will be our unsecured obligations unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Any secured debt or other secured obligations will be effectively senior to the debt securities to the extent of the value of the assets securing such debt or other obligations.

The applicable prospectus supplement and/or free writing prospectus will include any additional or different terms of the debt securities of any series being offered, including the following terms:

 

   

the title and type of the debt securities;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be senior or subordinated debt securities, and, with respect to debt securities issued under the subordinated indenture the terms on which they are subordinated;

 

   

the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

   

the price or prices at which we will sell the debt securities;

 

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the maturity date or dates of the debt securities and the right, if any, to extend such date or dates;

 

   

the rate or rates, if any, per year, at which the debt securities will bear interest, or the method of determining such rate or rates;

 

   

the date or dates from which such interest will accrue, the interest payment dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such interest payment dates and the related record dates;

 

   

the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of that extension;

 

   

the manner of paying principal and interest and the place or places where principal and interest will be payable;

 

   

provisions for a sinking fund, purchase fund or other analogous fund, if any;

 

   

any redemption dates, prices, obligations and restrictions on the debt securities;

 

   

the currency, currencies or currency units in which the debt securities will be denominated and the currency, currencies or currency units in which principal and interest, if any, on the debt securities may be payable;

 

   

any conversion or exchange features of the debt securities;

 

   

whether and upon what terms the debt securities may be defeased;

 

   

any events of default or covenants in addition to or in lieu of those set forth in the indenture;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be issued in definitive or global form or in definitive form only upon satisfaction of certain conditions;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be guaranteed as to payment or performance;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be secured by any collateral and, if so, a general description of the collateral and the terms and provisions of such collateral, security, pledge or other related agreements;

 

   

any material tax implications of the debt securities; and

 

   

any other material terms of the debt securities.

When we refer to “principal” in this section with reference to the debt securities, we are also referring to “premium, if any.”

We may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of any series of debt securities, create and issue further debt securities of any such series ranking equally with the debt securities of such series in all respects (or in all respects other than (1) the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further debt securities or (2) the first payment of interest following the issue date of such further debt securities). Such further debt securities may be consolidated and form a single series with the debt securities of such series and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the debt securities of such series.

You may present debt securities for exchange and you may present debt securities for transfer in the manner, at the places and subject to the restrictions set forth in the debt securities and the applicable prospectus supplement.

We will provide you those services without charge, although you may have to pay any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with any exchange or transfer, as set forth in the indenture.

Debt securities may bear interest at a fixed rate or a floating rate. Debt securities bearing no interest or interest at a rate that at the time of issuance is below the prevailing market rate (original issue discount securities) may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable

 

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to any such discounted debt securities or to certain debt securities issued at par which are treated as having been issued at a discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may issue debt securities with the principal amount payable on any principal payment date, or the amount of interest payable on any interest payment date, to be determined by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, securities or baskets of securities, commodity prices or indices. You may receive a payment of principal on any principal payment date, or a payment of interest on any interest payment date, that is greater than or less than the amount of principal or interest otherwise payable on such dates, depending on the value on such dates of the applicable currency, security or basket of securities, commodity or index. Information as to the methods for determining the amount of principal or interest payable on any date, the currencies, securities or baskets of securities, commodities or indices to which the amount payable on such date is linked and certain related tax considerations will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Certain Terms of the Senior Debt Securities

Covenants

Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will not contain any financial or restrictive covenants, including covenants restricting either us or our subsidiary from incurring, issuing, assuming or guaranteeing any indebtedness secured by a lien on our or our subsidiary’s property or capital stock, or restricting either us or our subsidiary from entering into sale and leaseback transactions.

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets

Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, we may not consolidate with or merge into any other person, in a transaction in which we are not the surviving corporation, or convey, transfer or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any person, in either case, unless:

 

   

the successor entity, if any, is a U.S. corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust (subject to certain exceptions provided for in the senior indenture);

 

   

the successor entity assumes our obligations on the senior debt securities and under the senior indenture;

 

   

immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no default or event of default shall have occurred and be continuing; and

 

   

certain other conditions are met, including the delivery to the senior trustee of an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that the consolidation, merger, conveyance, transfer or lease and if a supplemental indenture is required in connection with such transaction, such supplemental indenture, comply with the senior indenture and all conditions precedent provided for in the senior indenture relating to such transaction have been complied with.

The restrictions described in the bullets above do not apply (1) to our consolidation with or merging into one of our affiliates, if our board of directors determines in good faith that the purpose of the consolidation or merger is principally to change our state of incorporation or our form of organization to another form or (2) if we merge with or into single direct or indirect wholly owned subsidiary of ours.

The surviving business entity will succeed to, and be substituted for, us under the senior indenture and the senior debt securities and, except in the case of a lease, we shall be released from all obligations under the senior indenture and the senior debt securities.

 

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No Protection in the Event of a Change in Control

Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the senior debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control).

Events of Default

Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the following are events of default under the senior indenture for any series of senior debt securities:

 

   

failure to pay interest on any senior debt securities of such series when due and payable, if that default continues for a period of 90 days (or such other period as may be specified for such series);

 

   

failure to pay principal on the senior debt securities of such series when due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise (and, if specified for such series, the continuance of such failure for a specified period);

 

   

default in the performance of or breach of any of our covenants or agreements in the senior indenture applicable to senior debt securities of such series, other than a covenant breach which is specifically dealt with elsewhere in the senior indenture, and that default or breach continues for a period of 90 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or from the holders of 25% or more in aggregate principal amount of the senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency, whether or not voluntary; and

 

   

any other event of default provided for in such series of senior debt securities as may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The default by us under any other debt, including any other series of debt securities, is not a default under the senior indenture.

If an event of default other than an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs with respect to a series of senior debt securities and is continuing under the senior indenture, then, and in each such case, either the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series then outstanding under the senior indenture (each such series voting as a separate class) by written notice to us and to the trustee, if such notice is given by the holders, may, and the trustee at the request of such holders shall, declare the principal amount of and accrued interest on such series of senior debt securities to be immediately due and payable, and upon this declaration, the same shall become immediately due and payable.

If an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs with respect to us and is continuing, the entire principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, on each series of senior debt securities then outstanding shall become immediately due and payable.

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement relating to a series of senior debt securities originally issued at a discount, the amount due upon acceleration shall include only the original issue price of the senior debt securities, the amount of original issue discount accrued to the date of acceleration and accrued interest, if any.

Upon certain conditions, declarations of acceleration may be rescinded and annulled and past defaults may be waived by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the senior debt securities of such series affected by the default, each series voting as a separate class. Furthermore, subject to various provisions in the senior indenture, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities, by notice to the trustee, may waive an existing default or event of default with respect to such senior debt

 

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securities and its consequences, except a default in the payment of principal of or interest on such senior debt securities or in respect of a covenant or provision of the senior indenture which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of each such senior debt security. Upon any such waiver, such default shall cease to exist, and any event of default with respect to such senior debt securities shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of the senior indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or event of default or impair any right consequent thereto.

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to such senior debt securities. However, the trustee may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or the senior indenture, that may involve the trustee in personal liability or that the trustee determines in good faith may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of holders of such series of senior debt securities not joining in the giving of such direction and may take any other action it deems proper that is not inconsistent with any such direction received from holders of such series of senior debt securities. A holder may not pursue any remedy with respect to the senior indenture or any series of senior debt securities unless:

 

   

the holder gives the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default;

 

   

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities make a written request to the trustee to pursue the remedy in respect of such event of default;

 

   

the requesting holder or holders offer the trustee indemnity satisfactory to the trustee against any costs, liability or expense;

 

   

the trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and the offer of indemnity; and

 

   

during such 60-day period, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities do not give the trustee a direction that is inconsistent with the request.

These limitations, however, do not apply to the right of any holder of a senior debt security to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on such senior debt security in accordance with the terms of such debt security, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment in accordance with the terms of such debt security, on or after the due date for the senior debt securities, which right shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of the holder.

The senior indenture requires certain of our officers to certify, on or before a fixed date in each year in which any senior debt security is outstanding, as to their knowledge of our compliance with all covenants, agreements and conditions under the senior indenture.

Satisfaction and Discharge

We can satisfy and discharge our obligations to holders of any series of debt securities if:

 

   

we pay or cause to be paid, as and when due and payable, the principal of and any interest on all senior debt securities of such series outstanding under the senior indenture;

 

   

we deliver to the senior trustee for cancellation all senior debt securities of such series theretofore authenticated under the senior indenture; or

 

   

all senior debt securities of such series have become due and payable or will become due and payable within one year (or are to be called for redemption within one year) and we deposit in trust a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations (or in the case of senior debt securities denominated in a foreign currency, foreign government securities or foreign government agency securities) that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

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and if, in any such case, we also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable under the senior indenture, as and when the same shall be due and payable and we deliver to the senior trustee an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that these conditions have been satisfied.

Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities would be treated as though we took back your debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and debt securities or bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize gain or loss on the debt securities you give back to us. Purchasers of the debt securities should consult their own advisers with respect to the tax consequences to them of such deposit and discharge, including the applicability and effect of tax laws other than the U.S. federal income tax law.

Defeasance

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, the following discussion of legal defeasance and discharge and covenant defeasance will apply to any series of debt securities issued under the indentures.

Legal Defeasance

We can legally release ourselves from any payment or other obligations on the debt securities of any series (called “legal defeasance”) if certain conditions are met, including the following:

 

   

We deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the debt securities of the same series a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

   

There is a change in current U.S. federal income tax law or an IRS ruling that lets us make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the debt securities ourselves when due. Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities would be treated as though we took back your debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and debt securities or bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize gain or loss on the debt securities you give back to us.

 

   

We deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming the tax law change or ruling described above.

If we accomplish legal defeasance, as described above, you would have to rely solely on the trust deposit for repayment of the debt securities. You could not look to us for repayment in the event of any shortfall.

Covenant Defeasance

Without any change of current U.S. federal tax law, we can make the same type of deposit described above and be released from some of the covenants in the debt securities (called “covenant defeasance”). In that event, you would lose the protection of those covenants but would gain the protection of having money and securities set aside in trust to repay the debt securities. In order to achieve covenant defeasance, we must do the following (among other things):

 

   

We must deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the debt securities of the same series a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

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We must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming that under current U.S. federal income tax law we may make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the debt securities ourselves when due.

If we accomplish covenant defeasance, you could still look to us for repayment of the debt securities if there were a shortfall in the trust deposit. In fact, if one of the events of default occurred (such as our bankruptcy) and the debt securities become immediately due and payable, there may be such a shortfall. Depending on the events causing the default, you may not be able to obtain payment of the shortfall.

Modification and Waiver

We and the trustee may amend or supplement the senior indenture or the senior debt securities without the consent of any holder:

 

   

to convey, transfer, assign, mortgage or pledge any assets as security for the senior debt securities of one or more series;

 

   

to evidence the succession of a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust to us, and the assumption by such successor of our covenants, agreements and obligations under the senior indenture or to otherwise comply with the covenant relating to mergers, consolidations and sales of assets;

 

   

to comply with the requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the senior indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act;

 

   

to add to our covenants such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the protection of the holders, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default;

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the senior indenture or in any supplemental indenture or to conform the senior indenture or the senior debt securities to the description of senior debt securities of such series set forth in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement;

 

   

to provide for or add guarantors with respect to the senior debt securities of any series;

 

   

to establish the form or forms or terms of the senior debt securities as permitted by the senior indenture;

 

   

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under the senior indenture by a successor trustee, or to make such changes as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts in the senior indenture by more than one trustee;

 

   

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of any series of senior debt securities;

 

   

to make any change to the senior debt securities of any series so long as no senior debt securities of such series are outstanding; or

 

   

to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder in any material respect.

Other amendments and modifications of the senior indenture or the senior debt securities issued may be made, and our compliance with any provision of the senior indenture with respect to any series of senior debt securities may be waived, with the consent of the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding senior debt securities of all series affected by the amendment or modification (voting together as a single class); provided, however, that each affected holder must consent to any modification, amendment or waiver that:

 

   

extends the final maturity of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

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reduces the principal amount of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the rate or extends the time of payment of interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the amount payable upon the redemption of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

changes the currency of payment of principal of or interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the principal amount of original issue discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity or the amount provable in bankruptcy;

 

   

waives an uncured default in the payment of principal of or interest on the senior debt securities (except in the case of a rescission of acceleration as described above);

 

   

changes the provisions relating to the waiver of past defaults or changes or impairs the right of holders to receive payment or to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment or conversion of any senior debt securities of such series on or after the due date therefor;

 

   

modifies any of the provisions of these restrictions on amendments and modifications, except to increase any required percentage or to provide that certain other provisions cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the holder of each senior debt security of such series affected by the modification; or

 

   

reduces the above-stated percentage of outstanding senior debt securities of such series whose holders must consent to a supplemental indenture or modifies, amends or waives certain provisions of or defaults under the senior indenture.

It shall not be necessary for the holders to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, supplement or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if the holders’ consent approves the substance thereof. After an amendment, supplement or waiver of the senior indenture in accordance with the provisions described in this section becomes effective, the trustee must give to the holders affected thereby certain notice briefly describing the amendment, supplement or waiver. Any failure by the trustee to give such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such amendment, supplemental indenture or waiver.

No Personal Liability of Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers, Directors

The senior indenture provides that no recourse shall be had under any obligation, covenant or agreement of ours in the senior indenture or any supplemental indenture, or in any of the senior debt securities or because of the creation of any indebtedness represented thereby, against any of our incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors, past, present or future, or of any predecessor or successor entity thereof under any law, statute or constitutional provision or by the enforcement of any assessment or by any legal or equitable proceeding or otherwise. Each holder, by accepting the senior debt securities, waives and releases all such liability.

Concerning the Trustee

The senior indenture provides that, except during the continuance of an event of default, the trustee will not be liable except for the performance of such duties as are specifically set forth in the senior indenture. If an event of default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee will exercise such rights and powers vested in it under the senior indenture and will use the same degree of care and skill in its exercise as a prudent person would exercise under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

The senior indenture and the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act incorporated by reference therein contain limitations on the rights of the trustee thereunder, should it become a creditor of ours or our subsidiary, to obtain payment of claims in certain cases or to realize on certain property received by it in respect of any such claims, as security or otherwise. The trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions, provided that if it acquires any conflicting interest (as defined in the Trust Indenture Act), it must eliminate such conflict or resign.

 

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We may have normal banking relationships with the senior trustee in the ordinary course of business.

Unclaimed Funds

All funds deposited with the trustee or any paying agent for the payment of principal, premium, interest or additional amounts in respect of the senior debt securities that remain unclaimed for two years after the date upon which such principal, premium, interest or additional amounts became due and payable will be repaid to us. Thereafter, any right of any holder of senior debt securities to such funds shall be enforceable only against us, and the trustee and paying agents will have no liability therefor.

Governing Law

The senior indenture and the senior debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York.

Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities

Other than the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities relating to subordination or otherwise as described in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of subordinated debt securities, the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities are identical in all material respects to the terms of the senior indenture and senior debt securities.

Additional or different subordination terms may be specified in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series.

Subordination

The indebtedness evidenced by the subordinated debt securities is subordinate to the prior payment in full of all of our senior indebtedness, as defined in the subordinated indenture. During the continuance beyond any applicable grace period of any default in the payment of principal, premium, interest or any other payment due on any of our senior indebtedness, we may not make any payment of principal of or interest on the subordinated debt securities (except for certain sinking fund payments). In addition, upon any payment or distribution of our assets upon any dissolution, winding-up, liquidation or reorganization, the payment of the principal of and interest on the subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the extent provided in the subordinated indenture in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all our senior indebtedness. Because of this subordination, if we dissolve or otherwise liquidate, holders of our subordinated debt securities may receive less, ratably, than holders of our senior indebtedness. The subordination provisions do not prevent the occurrence of an event of default under the subordinated indenture.

The term “senior indebtedness” of a person means with respect to such person the principal of, premium, if any, interest on, and any other payment due pursuant to any of the following, whether outstanding on the date of the subordinated indenture or incurred by that person in the future:

 

   

all of the indebtedness of that person for money borrowed;

 

   

all of the indebtedness of that person evidenced by notes, debentures, bonds or other securities sold by that person for money;

 

   

all of the lease obligations that are capitalized on the books of that person in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

 

   

all indebtedness of others of the kinds described in the first two bullet points above and all lease obligations of others of the kind described in the third bullet point above that the person, in any manner, assumes or guarantees or that the person in effect guarantees through an agreement to purchase, whether that agreement is contingent or otherwise; and

 

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all renewals, extensions or refundings of indebtedness of the kinds described in the first, second or fourth bullet point above and all renewals or extensions of leases of the kinds described in the third or fourth bullet point above;

unless, in the case of any particular indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding, the instrument creating or evidencing it or the assumption or guarantee relating to it expressly provides that such indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding is not superior in right of payment to the subordinated debt securities. Our senior debt securities constitute senior indebtedness for purposes of the subordinated debt indenture.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our capital stock is intended as a summary only and therefore is not complete. This description is based upon, and is qualified by reference to, our restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws, each as amended from time to time, and by applicable provisions of Delaware corporate law. You should read our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, for the provisions that are important to you.

Our authorized capital stock consists of 200,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share. As of January 31, 2019, 56,279,307 shares of common stock were outstanding and no shares of preferred stock were outstanding.

Common Stock

Voting Rights. Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. An election of directors by our stockholders will be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election. Other matters shall be decided by the affirmative vote of our stockholders having a majority in voting power of the votes cast by the stockholders present or represented and voting on such matter, except as otherwise disclosed below.

Dividends. Holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of outstanding preferred stock.

Liquidation and Dissolution. In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately all assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock.

Other Rights. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Transfer Agent and Registrar. The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

Listing on The Nasdaq Global Select Market. Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “APLS.”

Preferred Stock

Under the terms of our restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors is authorized to issue shares of preferred stock in one or more series without stockholder approval. Our board of directors has the discretion to determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock.

A series of our preferred stock could, depending on the terms of such series, impede the completion of a merger, tender offer or other takeover attempt. Our board of directors will make any determination to issue preferred shares based upon its judgment as to the best interests of our stockholders. Our directors, in so acting, could issue preferred stock having terms that could discourage an acquisition attempt through which an acquirer may be able to change the composition of our board of directors, including a tender offer or other transaction that

 

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some, or a majority, of our stockholders might believe to be in their best interests or in which stockholders might receive a premium for their stock over the then-current market price of the stock.

The preferred stock has the terms described below unless otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of preferred stock. You should read the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of preferred stock being offered for specific terms, including:

 

   

the designation and stated value per share of the preferred stock and the number of shares offered;

 

   

the amount of liquidation preference per share;

 

   

the price at which the preferred stock will be issued;

 

   

the dividend rate, or method of calculation of dividends, the dates on which dividends will be payable, whether dividends will be cumulative or noncumulative and, if cumulative, the dates from which dividends will commence to accumulate;

 

   

any redemption or sinking fund provisions;

 

   

if other than the currency of the United States, the currency or currencies including composite currencies in which the preferred stock is denominated and/or in which payments will or may be payable;

 

   

any conversion provisions; and

 

   

any other rights, preferences, privileges, limitations and restrictions on the preferred stock.

The preferred stock will, when issued, be fully paid and non-assessable. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, each series of preferred stock will rank equally as to dividends and liquidation rights in all respects with each other series of preferred stock. The rights of holders of shares of each series of preferred stock will be subordinate to those of our general creditors.

Rank. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, rank:

 

   

senior to our common stock and to all equity securities ranking junior to such preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

   

on a parity with all equity securities issued by us, the terms of which specifically provide that such equity securities rank on a parity with the preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs; and

 

   

junior to all equity securities issued by us, the terms of which specifically provide that such equity securities rank senior to the preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs.

The term “equity securities” does not include convertible debt securities.

Dividends. Holders of the preferred stock of each series will be entitled to receive, when, as and if declared by our board of directors, cash dividends at such rates and on such dates described in the prospectus supplement. Different series of preferred stock may be entitled to dividends at different rates or based on different methods of calculation. The dividend rate may be fixed or variable or both. Dividends will be payable to the holders of record as they appear on our stock books on record dates fixed by our board of directors, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Dividends on any series of preferred stock may be cumulative or noncumulative, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If our board of directors does not declare a dividend payable on a dividend payment date on any series of noncumulative preferred stock, then the holders of that noncumulative preferred

 

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stock will have no right to receive a dividend for that dividend payment date, and we will have no obligation to pay the dividend accrued for that period, whether or not dividends on that series are declared payable on any future dividend payment dates. Dividends on any series of cumulative preferred stock will accrue from the date we initially issue shares of such series or such other date specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

No dividends may be declared or paid or funds set apart for the payment of any dividends on any parity securities unless full dividends have been paid or set apart for payment on the preferred stock. If full dividends are not paid, the preferred stock will share dividends pro rata with the parity securities.

No dividends may be declared or paid or funds set apart for the payment of dividends on any junior securities unless full dividends for all dividend periods terminating on or prior to the date of the declaration or payment will have been paid or declared and a sum sufficient for the payment set apart for payment on the preferred stock.

Liquidation Preference. Upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, then, before we make any distribution or payment to the holders of any common stock or any other class or series of our capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock in the distribution of assets upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, the holders of each series of preferred stock shall be entitled to receive out of assets legally available for distribution to stockholders, liquidating distributions in the amount of the liquidation preference per share set forth in the prospectus supplement, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends thereon. Such dividends will not include any accumulation in respect of unpaid noncumulative dividends for prior dividend periods. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, after payment of the full amount of their liquidating distributions, the holders of preferred stock will have no right or claim to any of our remaining assets. Upon any such voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up, if our available assets are insufficient to pay the amount of the liquidating distributions on all outstanding preferred stock and the corresponding amounts payable on all other classes or series of our capital stock ranking on parity with the preferred stock and all other such classes or series of shares of capital stock ranking on parity with the preferred stock in the distribution of assets, then the holders of the preferred stock and all other such classes or series of capital stock will share ratably in any such distribution of assets in proportion to the full liquidating distributions to which they would otherwise be entitled.

Upon any such liquidation, dissolution or winding up and if we have made liquidating distributions in full to all holders of preferred stock, we will distribute our remaining assets among the holders of any other classes or series of capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock according to their respective rights and preferences and, in each case, according to their respective number of shares. For such purposes, our consolidation or merger with or into any other corporation, trust or entity, or the sale, lease or conveyance of all or substantially all of our property or assets will not be deemed to constitute a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs.

Redemption. If so provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will be subject to mandatory redemption or redemption at our option, as a whole or in part, in each case upon the terms, at the times and at the redemption prices set forth in such prospectus supplement.

The prospectus supplement relating to a series of preferred stock that is subject to mandatory redemption will specify the number of shares of preferred stock that shall be redeemed by us in each year commencing after a date to be specified, at a redemption price per share to be specified, together with an amount equal to all accrued and unpaid dividends thereon to the date of redemption. Unless the shares have a cumulative dividend, such accrued dividends will not include any accumulation in respect of unpaid dividends for prior dividend periods. We may pay the redemption price in cash or other property, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. If the redemption price for preferred stock of any series is payable only from the net proceeds of the issuance of shares of our capital stock, the terms of such preferred stock may provide that, if no such shares of our capital stock shall have been issued or to the extent the net proceeds from any issuance are insufficient to pay in full the aggregate redemption price then due, such preferred stock shall automatically and mandatorily be

 

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converted into the applicable shares of our capital stock pursuant to conversion provisions specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we will not redeem any preferred stock of a series unless:

 

   

if that series of preferred stock has a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full cumulative dividends on the preferred stock for all past dividend periods and the then current dividend period; or

 

   

if such series of preferred stock does not have a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full dividends for the then current dividend period.

In addition, we will not acquire any preferred stock of a series unless:

 

   

if that series of preferred stock has a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full cumulative dividends on all outstanding shares of such series of preferred stock for all past dividend periods and the then current dividend period; or

 

   

if that series of preferred stock does not have a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full dividends on the preferred stock of such series for the then current dividend period.

However, at any time we may purchase or acquire preferred stock of that series (1) pursuant to a purchase or exchange offer made on the same terms to holders of all outstanding preferred stock of such series or (2) by conversion into or exchange for shares of our capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock of such series as to dividends and upon liquidation.

If fewer than all of the outstanding shares of preferred stock of any series are to be redeemed, we will determine the number of shares that may be redeemed pro rata from the holders of record of such shares in proportion to the number of such shares held or for which redemption is requested by such holder or by any other equitable manner that we determine. Such determination will reflect adjustments to avoid redemption of fractional shares.

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, we will mail notice of redemption at least 30 days but not more than 60 days before the redemption date to each holder of record of preferred stock to be redeemed at the address shown on our stock transfer books. Each notice shall state:

 

   

the redemption date;

 

   

the number of shares and series of preferred stock to be redeemed;

 

   

the redemption price;

 

   

the place or places where certificates for such preferred stock are to be surrendered for payment of the redemption price;

 

   

that dividends on the shares to be redeemed will cease to accrue on such redemption date;

 

   

the date on which the holder’s conversion rights, if any, as to such shares shall terminate; and

 

   

the specific number of shares to be redeemed from each such holder if fewer than all the shares of any series are to be redeemed.

If notice of redemption has been given and we have set aside the funds necessary for such redemption in trust for the benefit of the holders of any shares called for redemption, then from and after the redemption date, dividends will cease to accrue on such shares, and all rights of the holders of such shares will terminate, except the right to receive the redemption price.

 

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Voting Rights. Holders of preferred stock will not have any voting rights, except as required by law or as indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unless otherwise provided for under the terms of any series of preferred stock, no consent or vote of the holders of shares of preferred stock or any series thereof shall be required for any amendment to our restated certificate of incorporation that would increase the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or the number of authorized shares of any series thereof or decrease the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or the number of authorized shares of any series thereof (but not below the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or such series, as the case may be, then outstanding).

Conversion Rights. The terms and conditions, if any, upon which any series of preferred stock is convertible into our common stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating thereto. Such terms will include the number of shares of common stock into which the shares of preferred stock are convertible, the conversion price, rate or manner of calculation thereof, the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at our option or at the option of the holders of the preferred stock, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption.

Transfer Agent and Registrar. The transfer agent and registrar for the preferred stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Registration Rights

Our investors’ rights agreement provides specified holders of shares of our common stock, including some of our directors and 5% stockholders and their respective affiliates and entities affiliated with our officers and directors, the right to require us to register such shares under the Securities Act under specified circumstances as described below. After registration pursuant to these rights, these shares will become freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act.

Demand Registration Rights

Beginning six months after the closing of our initial public offering, subject to specified limitations set forth in the investors’ rights agreement, at any time the holders of a majority of then outstanding registrable securities, as defined in the investors’ rights agreement, acting together, may demand in writing that we register their registrable securities under the Securities Act so long as the total amount of registrable shares requested to be registered has an anticipated aggregate offering price to the public, net of selling expenses, of least $5.0 million. We are not obligated to file a registration statement pursuant to this demand provision on more than two occasions, subject to specified exceptions.

In addition, at any time after we become eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act, subject to specified limitations, the holders of at least 30% of the registrable securities then outstanding may demand in writing that we register on Form S-3 registrable shares held by them so long as the total amount of registrable shares requested to be registered has an anticipated aggregate offering price to the public, net of selling expenses, of least $1.0 million.

Incidental Registration Rights

If we propose to file a registration statement to register any of our securities under the Securities Act, either for our own account or for the account of any of our stockholders that are not holders of registrable shares, solely for cash and on a form that would also permit the registration of registrable shares, the holders of our registrable shares are entitled to notice of registration and, subject to specified exceptions, we will be required to register the registrable shares then held by them that they request that we register.

 

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Expenses

Pursuant to the investors’ rights agreement, we are required to pay all registration expenses, including registration fees, printing expenses, fees and disbursements of our counsel and accountants and reasonable fees and disbursements of one counsel representing the selling stockholders, other than any underwriting discounts and commissions, related to any demand or incidental registration. The investors’ rights agreement contains customary cross-indemnification provisions, pursuant to which we are obligated to indemnify the selling stockholders in the event of material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to us, and they are obligated to indemnify us for material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to them.

Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law and Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

Delaware law contains, our restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws contain, provisions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another party from acquiring control of us. These provisions, which are summarized below, are expected to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors.

Staggered Board; Removal of Directors

Our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws divide our board of directors into three classes with staggered three-year terms. In addition, a director may be removed only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all of our stockholders would be entitled to cast in an annual election of directors. Any vacancy on our board of directors, including a vacancy resulting from an enlargement of our board of directors, may be filled only by vote of a majority of our directors then in office. The classification of our board of directors and the limitations on the removal of directors and filling of vacancies could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, control of the Company.

Stockholder Action by Written Consent; Special Meetings

Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that any action required or permitted to be taken by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of such holders and may not be effected by any consent in writing by such holders. Our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws also provide that, except as otherwise required by law, special meetings of our stockholders can only be called by our chairman of the board, our chief executive officer or our board of directors.

Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals

Our amended and restated bylaws establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of stockholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors. Stockholders at an annual meeting may consider proposals or nominations specified in the notice of meeting or brought before the meeting by or at the direction of our board of directors or by a stockholder of record on the record date for the meeting who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has delivered timely written notice in proper form to our secretary of the stockholder’s intention to bring such business before the meeting. These provisions could have the effect of delaying until the next stockholder meeting stockholder actions that are favored by the holders of a majority of our outstanding voting securities.

Delaware Business Combination Statute

We are subject to Section 203 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware. Subject to certain exceptions, Section 203 prevents a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business

 

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combination” with any “interested stockholder” for three years following the date that the person became an interested stockholder, unless the interested stockholder attained such status with the approval of our board of directors or unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. A “business combination” includes, among other things, a merger or consolidation involving us and the “interested stockholder” and the sale of more than 10% of our assets. In general, an “interested stockholder” is any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person.

Amendment of Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

The General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, as the case may be, requires a greater percentage. Our amended and restated bylaws may be amended or repealed by a majority vote of our board of directors or by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all of our stockholders would be entitled to cast in any annual election of directors. In addition, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all of our stockholders would be entitled to cast in any annual election of directors is required to amend or repeal or to adopt any provisions inconsistent with any of the provisions of our restated certificate of incorporation described above under “—Staggered Board; Removal of Directors” and “—Stockholder Action by Written Consent; Special Meetings.”

Exclusive Forum Selection

Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Company, (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, employees or stockholders to the Company or our stockholders, (3) any action asserting a claim against the Company arising pursuant to any provision of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware or our restated certificate of incorporation or amended and restated bylaws, or (4) any action asserting a claim against the Company governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Although our restated certificate of incorporation contains the choice of forum provision described above, it is possible that a court could rule that such a provision is inapplicable for a particular claim or action or that such provision is unenforceable.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities that may be offered under this prospectus, in any combination. The following, together with the additional information we may include in the applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms summarized below will apply generally to any units we may offer, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately at any time, or at any time before a specified date.

Any applicable prospectus supplement will describe:

 

   

the material terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

   

any material provisions relating to the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

 

   

any material provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described above.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. We may offer warrants separately or together with one or more additional warrants, common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we issue warrants as part of a unit, the accompanying prospectus supplement will specify whether those warrants may be separated from the other securities in the unit prior to the expiration date of the warrants. The applicable prospectus supplement will also describe the following terms of any warrants:

 

   

the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the offering price at which we will issue, the warrants;

 

   

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;

 

   

whether the warrants are to be sold separately or with other securities as parts of units;

 

   

whether the warrants will be issued in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms, although, in any case, the form of a warrant included in a unit will correspond to the form of the unit and of any security included in that unit;

 

   

any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences;

 

   

the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;

 

   

the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;

 

   

the designation and terms of any equity securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

the designation, aggregate principal amount, currency and terms of any debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the preferred stock with which the warrants are issued and, the number of warrants issued with each security;

 

   

if applicable, the date from and after which any warrants issued as part of a unit and the related preferred stock, common stock or debt security will be separately transferable;

 

   

the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of a warrant and the price at which those shares may be purchased;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

   

the anti-dilution provisions of, and other provisions for changes to or adjustment in the exercise price of, the warrants, if any;

 

   

any redemption or call provisions; and

 

   

any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange or exercise of the warrants.

 

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FORMS OF SECURITIES

Each debt security, warrant and unit will be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, certificated securities will be issued in definitive form and global securities will be issued in registered form. Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable. Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the debt securities, warrants or units represented by these global securities. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor’s beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker/dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.

Global Securities

We may issue the debt securities, warrants and units in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees.

If not described below, any specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any securities to be represented by a global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.

Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some states may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in global securities.

So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture, warrant or unit agreement. Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the applicable indenture, warrant or unit agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture, warrant or unit agreement. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture, warrant or unit

 

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agreement, the depositary for the global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

Principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on debt securities, and any payments to holders with respect to warrants or units, represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security. None of us, or any trustee, warrant agent, unit agent or any other agent of ours, or any agent of any trustee, warrant agent or unit agent will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.

We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security, upon receipt of any payment to holders of principal, premium, interest or other distribution of underlying securities or other property on that registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of those participants.

If the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the global security that had been held by the depositary. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee, warrant agent, unit agent or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary’s instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global security that had been held by the depositary.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

Securities Offered by Us

We may sell securities:

 

   

to or through underwriters;

 

   

to or through brokers or dealers;

 

   

through agents;

 

   

directly to one or more purchasers in negotiated sales or competitively bid transactions;

 

   

through a block trade in which the broker or dealer engaged to handle the block trade will attempt to sell the securities as agent, but may position and resell a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction; or

 

   

through a combination of any of these methods of sale.

In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. We will, in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act, and describe any commissions that we must pay. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis.

The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price, or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.

The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

 

   

the name of the agent or any underwriters;

 

   

the public offering or purchase price and the proceeds we will receive from the sale of the securities;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;

 

   

all other items constituting underwriting compensation;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.

If any underwriters or agents are utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.

 

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If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.

Remarketing firms, agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements which they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

 

   

the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

 

   

if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.

Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, and/or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may overallot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise or the securities are sold by us to an underwriter in a firm commitment underwritten offering. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the

 

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trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.

In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, to the extent applicable, the aggregate maximum discount, commission or agency fees or other items constituting underwriting compensation to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer will not exceed 8% of the proceeds from any offering pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.

Common Stock Offered by the Selling Stockholders

The shares of common stock covered by this prospectus for offering and sale by the selling stockholders may be offered and sold from time to time by the selling stockholders. The term “selling stockholders” includes transferees, pledgees, or donees or other successors-in-interest selling shares received after the date of this prospectus from the selling stockholders as a gift, pledge, partnership distribution or other non-sale related transfer. The selling stockholders will act independently of us in making decisions with respect to the timing, manner, and size of each sale. Such sales may be made on one or more exchanges or in the over-the-counter market or otherwise, at prices and under terms then prevailing or at prices related to the then current market price, or in negotiated transactions. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of common stock by the selling stockholders. The selling stockholders may sell their shares by one or more of, or a combination of, the following methods:

 

   

purchases by a broker-dealer as principal and resale by such broker-dealer for its own account pursuant to this prospectus;

 

   

ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which the broker solicits purchasers;

 

   

block trades in which the broker-dealer so engaged will attempt to sell the shares as agent but may position and resell a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction;

 

   

over-the-counter distributions in accordance with the rules of the Nasdaq Global Select Market;

 

   

privately negotiated transactions;

 

   

options transactions;

 

   

combinations of any of such methods; and

 

   

any other method permitted by applicable law.

In addition, any shares that qualify for sale pursuant to Rule 144 may be sold under Rule 144 rather than pursuant to this prospectus.

To the extent required, this prospectus may be amended or supplemented from time to time to describe a specific plan of distribution. In connection with distributions of the shares or otherwise, the selling stockholders may enter into hedging transactions with broker-dealers or other financial institutions. In connection with such transactions, broker-dealers or other financial institutions may engage in short sales of the common stock in the course of hedging the positions they assume with the selling stockholders. The selling stockholders may also sell the common stock short and redeliver the shares to close out such short positions. The selling stockholders may also enter into option or other transactions with broker-dealers or other financial institutions that require the delivery to such broker-dealer or other financial institution of shares offered by this prospectus, which shares

 

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such broker-dealer or other financial institution may resell pursuant to this prospectus (as supplemented or amended to reflect such transaction). The selling stockholders may also pledge shares to a broker-dealer or other financial institution, and, upon a default, such broker-dealer or other financial institution may effect sales of the pledged shares pursuant to this prospectus (as supplemented or amended to reflect such transaction).

In effecting sales, broker-dealers or agents engaged by the selling stockholders may arrange for other broker-dealers to participate. Broker-dealers or agents may receive commissions, discounts, or concessions from the selling stockholders in amounts to be negotiated immediately prior to the sale.

In offering the shares covered by this prospectus, the selling stockholders and any broker-dealers who execute sales for the selling stockholders may be deemed to be “underwriters” within the meaning of the Securities Act in connection with such sales. Any profits realized by the selling stockholders and the compensation of any broker-dealer may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions.

In order to comply with the securities laws of certain states, if applicable, the shares must be sold in such jurisdictions only through registered or licensed brokers or dealers. In addition, in certain states the shares may not be sold unless they have been registered or qualified for sale in the applicable state or an exemption from the registration or qualification requirement is available and is complied with. In addition, the anti-manipulation rules of Regulation M under the Exchange Act may apply to sales of shares in the market and to the activities of the selling stockholders and their affiliates.

We will make copies of this prospectus available to the selling stockholders for the purpose of satisfying the prospectus delivery requirements of the Securities Act. The selling stockholders may indemnify any broker-dealer that participates in transactions involving the sale of the shares against certain liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act.

At the time a particular offer of shares is made, if required, a prospectus supplement will be distributed that will set forth the number of shares being offered and the terms of the offering, including the name of any underwriter, dealer, or agent, the purchase price paid by any underwriter, any discount, commission, and other item constituting compensation, any discount, commission, or concession allowed or reallowed or paid to any dealer, and the proposed selling price to the public.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, the validity of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered will be passed upon by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the Company) appearing in the Company’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2017 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their report thereon (which contains an explanatory paragraph describing conditions that raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as described in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements) included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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$75,000,000

 

 

LOGO

Common Stock

 

 

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

                    , 2019

 

 

Joint Bookrunning Managers

Citigroup

J.P. Morgan

Cowen

Lead Manager

Cantor