S-3ASR
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on December 28, 2018

Registration No. 333-          

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   27-1537290

(State or Other Jurisdiction of

Incorporation or Organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

6400 Westwind Way, Suite A

Crestwood, KY 40014

(502) 241-4114

(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)

 

 

Cedric Francois, M.D., Ph.D.

President and Chief Executive Officer

Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

6400 Westwind Way, Suite A

Crestwood, KY 40014

(502) 241-4114

(Name, Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Agent for Service)

 

 

Copies to:

 

Stuart M. Falber, Esq.
Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP
60 State Street
Boston, Massachusetts 02109
Telephone: (617) 526-6333
 

David O. Watson, Esq.

General Counsel

Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

6400 Westwind Way, Suite A

Crestwood, KY 40014

Telephone: (502) 241-4114

Fax: (502) 241-4116

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this registration statement becomes effective.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☒

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of each class of

securities to be registered

 

Amount

to be Registered

 

Proposed Maximum
Aggregate

Offering Price

 

Amount of

Registration Fee

Primary Offering of Securities:

           

Debt Securities

  (1)   (1)   (2)

Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

  (1)   (1)   (2)

Preferred Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

  (1)   (1)   (2)

Units

  (1)   (1)   (2)

Warrants

  (1)   (1)   (2)

Subtotal

  (1)   (1)   (2)

Primary Offering of Common Stock:

           

Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

  $150,000,000   $150,000,000   $18,180

Secondary Offering of Common Stock:

           

Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

  (1)   (1)   (2)

Total

  (1)   (1)   (2)

 

 

(1)

Pursuant to Form S-3 General Instruction II(E), this information is not required to be included. An indeterminate amount of the securities of each identified class is being registered as may from time to time be offered hereunder at indeterminate prices, along with an indeterminate number of securities that may be issued upon exercise, settlement, exchange or conversion of securities offered or sold hereunder. Pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), this registration statement also covers any additional securities that may be offered or issued in connection with any stock split, stock dividend or pursuant to anti-dilution provisions of any of the securities. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable upon conversion, exercise or exchange of other securities.

(2)

In accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities Act, the registrant is deferring payment of all registration fees and will pay the registration fees subsequently in advance or on a “pay-as-you-go” basis.

 

 

 


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

 

   

a base prospectus which covers the offering, issuance and sale by us or the offering and sale by the selling stockholders of the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings; and

 

   

an equity distribution agreement prospectus that covers the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $150,000,000 of our common stock that may be issued and sold from time to time under an equity distribution agreement with Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus other than the shares under the equity distribution agreement will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The specific terms of the securities to be issued and sold under the equity distribution agreement are specified in the equity distribution agreement prospectus that immediately follows the base prospectus.


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PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

DEBT SECURITIES

COMMON STOCK

PREFERRED STOCK

UNITS

WARRANTS

 

 

We may offer and sell securities from time to time in one or more offerings. This prospectus may also be used to offer shares of our common stock for the accounts of persons other than us, whom we refer to in this prospectus as “selling stockholders.” This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide the specific terms of these securities in supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained or incorporated by reference in this document. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement before you invest.

We and the selling stockholders may offer these securities in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of offering. In a prospectus supplement relating to any sales by the selling stockholders, we will identify the selling stockholders and the number of shares of our common stock that the selling stockholders will be selling. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale, if any, of common stock by the selling stockholders.

The securities may be sold directly to you, through agents, or through underwriters and dealers. If agents, underwriters or dealers are used to sell the securities, we will name them and describe their compensation in a prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “APLS.”

 

 

Investing in these securities involves certain risks. See “Risk Factors” included on page 6 of this prospectus, in any accompanying prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase these securities.

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is December 28, 2018.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     2  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

     2  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     3  

APELLIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

     5  

RISK FACTORS

     6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     7  

SELLING STOCKHOLDERS

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     9  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     19  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     26  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     27  

FORMS OF SECURITIES

     28  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     30  

LEGAL MATTERS

     34  

EXPERTS

     34  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the “SEC”, as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, utilizing an automatic “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we or the selling stockholders may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we, or the selling stockholder, as applicable, sell securities, we will provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in any documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus and, accordingly, to the extent inconsistent, information in this prospectus is superseded by the information in the prospectus supplement. You should read both this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 1 of this prospectus.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. Neither we nor the selling stockholders have authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in this prospectus or such accompanying prospectus supplement or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to “we,” “our” and “us” refer, collectively, to Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiaries. The Apellis logo is our trademark. The other trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at http://www.apellis.com/. Our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information about us and our consolidated subsidiary and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-38276) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed) until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed.

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, including the information specifically incorporated by reference into the Annual Report on Form 10-K from our definitive proxy statement for the 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders;

 

   

Our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, June 30 and September 30, 2018;

 

   

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K dated March 30, 2018, June 4, 2018, September 4, 2018 and December 20, 2018; and

 

   

The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on November 3, 2017, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

You may request a copy of these documents, which will be provided to you at no cost, by writing or telephoning us using the following contact information:

6400 Westwind Way, Suite A

Crestwood, KY 40014

(502) 241-4114

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus include forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, contained in this herein and therein, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenue, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management and expected market growth are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “would” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

These forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements about:

 

   

our plans with respect to our ongoing and planned clinical trials for our product candidates, whether conducted by us or by any future collaborators, including the timing of these trials and of the anticipated results;

 

   

our plans to initiate clinical trials of APL-2;

 

   

the potential clinical benefits and attributes of APL-2 and the inhibition of C3;

 

   

our plans to develop APL-2 for any additional indications;

 

   

our plans to research, develop and commercialize our current and future product candidates;

 

   

our plans to potentially seek to enter into collaborations for the development and commercialization of certain product candidates;

 

   

the potential benefits of any future collaboration;

 

   

the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for our product candidates;

 

   

the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of any products for which we receive marketing approval;

 

   

our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy;

 

   

our intellectual property position and strategy;

 

   

our ability to identify additional products or product candidates with significant commercial potential;

 

   

our expectations related to the use of proceeds from this offering;

 

   

our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

   

developments relating to our competitors and our industry; and

 

   

the impact of government laws and regulations.

We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. You are cautioned that these forward-looking statements are only predictions and are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are referenced in the section of any accompanying prospectus supplement entitled “Risk Factors.” You should also carefully review the risk factors and cautionary statements described in the other documents we file from time to time with the SEC, specifically our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and our Current Reports on Form 8-K. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, collaborations, joint ventures or investments that we may make or enter into.

 

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You should read this prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

 

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APELLIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of novel therapeutic compounds to treat disease through the inhibition of the complement system, which is an integral component of the immune system, at the level of C3, the central protein in the complement cascade. We believe that this approach can result in broad inhibition of the principal pathways of the complement system and has the potential to effectively control a broad array of complement-dependent autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

We have the most advanced clinical program targeting C3 with ongoing Phase 3 clinical trials of our lead product candidate, APL-2, in geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration, or GA, and in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, or PNH. We believe that APL-2 has the potential to be a best-in-class treatment that may address the limitations of existing treatment options or provide a treatment option where there currently is none. APL-2 has already shown activity that we believe is clinically meaningful in clinical trials for both GA and PNH. We initiated our Phase 3 GA clinical program consisting of two identical Phase 3 clinical trials evaluating APL-2 in patients with GA. We also initiated a Phase 3 clinical trial evaluating APL-2 in patients with PNH who are anemic while being treated with eculizumab, the only approved therapy for PNH, and plan to initiate a second Phase 3 clinical trial in patients with PNH who have not been previously treated with eculizumab.

We are also conducting clinical trials of APL-2 in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration, or wet AMD, and in two other complement-dependent disease areas, autoimmune hemolytic anemia and complement-dependent nephropathies. We are also developing novel compounds targeting C3 and plan to conduct clinical trials of APL-2 and these compounds in additional complement dependent diseases. We hold worldwide commercialization rights to APL-2 and those other novel compounds targeting C3.

Our principal executive offices are located at 6400 Westwind Way, Suite A, Crestwood, KY 40014, and our telephone number is (502) 241-4114.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, including the risk factors set forth in our filings with the SEC that are incorporated by reference herein, including the risk factors in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017 and our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, June 30, and September 30, 2018, before making an investment decision pursuant to this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement relating to a specific offering.

Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by any or all of these risks or by additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial that may adversely affect us in the future.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus for general corporate purposes unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. General corporate purposes may include working capital and capital expenditures, research and development expenses, including clinical trial costs, general and administrative expenses, potential acquisition of, or investment in, companies, technologies, products or assets that complement our business, and repayment and refinancing of debt. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds in investment-grade, interest-bearing securities until they are used for their stated purpose. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds.

We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of any shares of common stock offered and sold by the selling stockholders. Any selling stockholder may pay any underwriting discounts and commissions and expenses incurred by such selling stockholder for brokerage, accounting, tax, or legal services or any other expenses incurred by such selling stockholder in disposing of the shares. We may bear all other costs, fees and expenses incurred in effecting the registration of the shares covered by this prospectus, including, without limitation, all registration and filing fees, Nasdaq Global Select Market listing fees, and fees and expenses of our counsel and our accountants.

 

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SELLING STOCKHOLDERS

This prospectus covers the offering for resale of common stock by selling stockholders. Information about such selling stockholders will be set forth in a prospectus supplement, in an amendment to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or in other filings we make with the SEC under the Exchange Act, which are incorporated by reference herein.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may offer debt securities which may be senior or subordinated. We refer to the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities collectively as debt securities. The following description summarizes the general terms and provisions of the debt securities. We will describe the specific terms of the debt securities and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions summarized below apply to any series of debt securities in the prospectus supplement relating to the series and any applicable free writing prospectus that we authorize to be delivered. When we refer to “the Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” in this section, we mean Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., excluding, unless the context otherwise requires or as otherwise expressly stated, our subsidiary.

We may issue senior debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a senior indenture to be entered into between us and a senior trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the senior trustee. We may issue subordinated debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a subordinated indenture to be entered into between us and a subordinated trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the subordinated trustee. The forms of senior indenture and subordinated indenture are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. Together, the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are referred to as the indentures and, together, the senior trustee and the subordinated trustee are referred to as the trustees. This prospectus briefly outlines some of the provisions of the indentures. The following summary of the material provisions of the indentures is qualified in its entirety by the provisions of the indentures, including definitions of certain terms used in the indentures. Wherever we refer to particular sections or defined terms of the indentures, those sections or defined terms are incorporated by reference in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement. You should review the indentures that are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part for additional information.

None of the indentures will limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. The applicable indenture will provide that debt securities may be issued up to an aggregate principal amount authorized from time to time by us and may be payable in any currency or currency unit designated by us or in amounts determined by reference to an index.

General

The senior debt securities will constitute our unsubordinated general obligations and will rank pari passu with our other unsubordinated obligations. The subordinated debt securities will constitute our subordinated general obligations and will be junior in right of payment to our senior indebtedness (including senior debt securities), as described under the heading “—Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities—Subordination.” The debt securities will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiary unless such subsidiary expressly guarantee such debt securities.

The debt securities will be our unsecured obligations unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Any secured debt or other secured obligations will be effectively senior to the debt securities to the extent of the value of the assets securing such debt or other obligations.

The applicable prospectus supplement and/or free writing prospectus will include any additional or different terms of the debt securities of any series being offered, including the following terms:

 

   

the title and type of the debt securities;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be senior or subordinated debt securities, and, with respect to debt securities issued under the subordinated indenture the terms on which they are subordinated;

 

   

the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

   

the price or prices at which we will sell the debt securities;

 

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the maturity date or dates of the debt securities and the right, if any, to extend such date or dates;

 

   

the rate or rates, if any, per year, at which the debt securities will bear interest, or the method of determining such rate or rates;

 

   

the date or dates from which such interest will accrue, the interest payment dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such interest payment dates and the related record dates;

 

   

the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of that extension;

 

   

the manner of paying principal and interest and the place or places where principal and interest will be payable;

 

   

provisions for a sinking fund, purchase fund or other analogous fund, if any;

 

   

any redemption dates, prices, obligations and restrictions on the debt securities;

 

   

the currency, currencies or currency units in which the debt securities will be denominated and the currency, currencies or currency units in which principal and interest, if any, on the debt securities may be payable;

 

   

any conversion or exchange features of the debt securities;

 

   

whether and upon what terms the debt securities may be defeased;

 

   

any events of default or covenants in addition to or in lieu of those set forth in the indenture;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be issued in definitive or global form or in definitive form only upon satisfaction of certain conditions;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be guaranteed as to payment or performance;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be secured by any collateral and, if so, a general description of the collateral and the terms and provisions of such collateral, security, pledge or other related agreements;

 

   

any material tax implications of the debt securities; and

 

   

any other material terms of the debt securities.

When we refer to “principal” in this section with reference to the debt securities, we are also referring to “premium, if any.”

We may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of any series of debt securities, create and issue further debt securities of any such series ranking equally with the debt securities of such series in all respects (or in all respects other than (1) the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further debt securities or (2) the first payment of interest following the issue date of such further debt securities). Such further debt securities may be consolidated and form a single series with the debt securities of such series and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the debt securities of such series.

You may present debt securities for exchange and you may present debt securities for transfer in the manner, at the places and subject to the restrictions set forth in the debt securities and the applicable prospectus supplement.

We will provide you those services without charge, although you may have to pay any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with any exchange or transfer, as set forth in the indenture.

Debt securities may bear interest at a fixed rate or a floating rate. Debt securities bearing no interest or interest at a rate that at the time of issuance is below the prevailing market rate (original issue discount securities)

 

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may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to any such discounted debt securities or to certain debt securities issued at par which are treated as having been issued at a discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may issue debt securities with the principal amount payable on any principal payment date, or the amount of interest payable on any interest payment date, to be determined by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, securities or baskets of securities, commodity prices or indices. You may receive a payment of principal on any principal payment date, or a payment of interest on any interest payment date, that is greater than or less than the amount of principal or interest otherwise payable on such dates, depending on the value on such dates of the applicable currency, security or basket of securities, commodity or index. Information as to the methods for determining the amount of principal or interest payable on any date, the currencies, securities or baskets of securities, commodities or indices to which the amount payable on such date is linked and certain related tax considerations will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Certain Terms of the Senior Debt Securities

Covenants

Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will not contain any financial or restrictive covenants, including covenants restricting either us or our subsidiary from incurring, issuing, assuming or guaranteeing any indebtedness secured by a lien on our or our subsidiary’s property or capital stock, or restricting either us or our subsidiary from entering into sale and leaseback transactions.

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets

Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, we may not consolidate with or merge into any other person, in a transaction in which we are not the surviving corporation, or convey, transfer or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any person, in either case, unless:

 

   

the successor entity, if any, is a U.S. corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust (subject to certain exceptions provided for in the senior indenture);

 

   

the successor entity assumes our obligations on the senior debt securities and under the senior indenture;

 

   

immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no default or event of default shall have occurred and be continuing; and

 

   

certain other conditions are met, including the delivery to the senior trustee of an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that the consolidation, merger, conveyance, transfer or lease and if a supplemental indenture is required in connection with such transaction, such supplemental indenture, comply with the senior indenture and all conditions precedent provided for in the senior indenture relating to such transaction have been complied with.

The restrictions described in the bullets above do not apply (1) to our consolidation with or merging into one of our affiliates, if our board of directors determines in good faith that the purpose of the consolidation or merger is principally to change our state of incorporation or our form of organization to another form or (2) if we merge with or into single direct or indirect wholly owned subsidiary of ours.

The surviving business entity will succeed to, and be substituted for, us under the senior indenture and the senior debt securities and, except in the case of a lease, we shall be released from all obligations under the senior indenture and the senior debt securities.

 

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No Protection in the Event of a Change in Control

Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the senior debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control).

Events of Default

Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the following are events of default under the senior indenture for any series of senior debt securities:

 

   

failure to pay interest on any senior debt securities of such series when due and payable, if that default continues for a period of 90 days (or such other period as may be specified for such series);

 

   

failure to pay principal on the senior debt securities of such series when due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise (and, if specified for such series, the continuance of such failure for a specified period);

 

   

default in the performance of or breach of any of our covenants or agreements in the senior indenture applicable to senior debt securities of such series, other than a covenant breach which is specifically dealt with elsewhere in the senior indenture, and that default or breach continues for a period of 90 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or from the holders of 25% or more in aggregate principal amount of the senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency, whether or not voluntary; and

 

   

any other event of default provided for in such series of senior debt securities as may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The default by us under any other debt, including any other series of debt securities, is not a default under the senior indenture.

If an event of default other than an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs with respect to a series of senior debt securities and is continuing under the senior indenture, then, and in each such case, either the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series then outstanding under the senior indenture (each such series voting as a separate class) by written notice to us and to the trustee, if such notice is given by the holders, may, and the trustee at the request of such holders shall, declare the principal amount of and accrued interest on such series of senior debt securities to be immediately due and payable, and upon this declaration, the same shall become immediately due and payable.

If an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs with respect to us and is continuing, the entire principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, on each series of senior debt securities then outstanding shall become immediately due and payable.

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement relating to a series of senior debt securities originally issued at a discount, the amount due upon acceleration shall include only the original issue price of the senior debt securities, the amount of original issue discount accrued to the date of acceleration and accrued interest, if any.

Upon certain conditions, declarations of acceleration may be rescinded and annulled and past defaults may be waived by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the senior debt securities of such series affected by the default, each series voting as a separate class. Furthermore, subject to various provisions in the senior indenture, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities, by notice to the trustee, may waive an existing default or event of default with respect to such senior debt

 

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securities and its consequences, except a default in the payment of principal of or interest on such senior debt securities or in respect of a covenant or provision of the senior indenture which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of each such senior debt security. Upon any such waiver, such default shall cease to exist, and any event of default with respect to such senior debt securities shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of the senior indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or event of default or impair any right consequent thereto.

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to such senior debt securities. However, the trustee may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or the senior indenture, that may involve the trustee in personal liability or that the trustee determines in good faith may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of holders of such series of senior debt securities not joining in the giving of such direction and may take any other action it deems proper that is not inconsistent with any such direction received from holders of such series of senior debt securities. A holder may not pursue any remedy with respect to the senior indenture or any series of senior debt securities unless:

 

   

the holder gives the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default;

 

   

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities make a written request to the trustee to pursue the remedy in respect of such event of default;

 

   

the requesting holder or holders offer the trustee indemnity satisfactory to the trustee against any costs, liability or expense;

 

   

the trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and the offer of indemnity; and

 

   

during such 60-day period, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities do not give the trustee a direction that is inconsistent with the request.

These limitations, however, do not apply to the right of any holder of a senior debt security to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on such senior debt security in accordance with the terms of such debt security, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment in accordance with the terms of such debt security, on or after the due date for the senior debt securities, which right shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of the holder.

The senior indenture requires certain of our officers to certify, on or before a fixed date in each year in which any senior debt security is outstanding, as to their knowledge of our compliance with all covenants, agreements and conditions under the senior indenture.

Satisfaction and Discharge

We can satisfy and discharge our obligations to holders of any series of debt securities if:

 

   

we pay or cause to be paid, as and when due and payable, the principal of and any interest on all senior debt securities of such series outstanding under the senior indenture; or

 

   

we deliver to the senior trustee for cancellation all senior debt securities of such series theretofore authenticated under the senior indenture

 

   

all senior debt securities of such series have become due and payable or will become due and payable within one year (or are to be called for redemption within one year) and we deposit in trust a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations (or in the case of senior debt securities denominated in a foreign currency, foreign government securities or foreign government agency securities) that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

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and if, in any such case, we also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable under the senior indenture, as and when the same shall be due and payable and we deliver to the senior trustee an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that these conditions have been satisfied.

Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities would be treated as though we took back your debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and debt securities or bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize gain or loss on the debt securities you give back to us. Purchasers of the debt securities should consult their own advisers with respect to the tax consequences to them of such deposit and discharge, including the applicability and effect of tax laws other than the U.S. federal income tax law.

Defeasance

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, the following discussion of legal defeasance and discharge and covenant defeasance will apply to any series of debt securities issued under the indentures.

Legal Defeasance

We can legally release ourselves from any payment or other obligations on the debt securities of any series (called “legal defeasance”) if certain conditions are met, including the following:

 

   

We deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the debt securities of the same series a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

   

There is a change in current U.S. federal income tax law or an IRS ruling that lets us make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the debt securities ourselves when due. Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities would be treated as though we took back your debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and debt securities or bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize gain or loss on the debt securities you give back to us.

 

   

We deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming the tax law change or ruling described above.

If we accomplish legal defeasance, as described above, you would have to rely solely on the trust deposit for repayment of the debt securities. You could not look to us for repayment in the event of any shortfall.

Covenant Defeasance

Without any change of current U.S. federal tax law, we can make the same type of deposit described above and be released from some of the covenants in the debt securities (called “covenant defeasance”). In that event, you would lose the protection of those covenants but would gain the protection of having money and securities set aside in trust to repay the debt securities. In order to achieve covenant defeasance, we must do the following (among other things):

 

   

We must deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the debt securities of the same series a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

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We must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming that under current U.S. federal income tax law we may make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the debt securities ourselves when due.

If we accomplish covenant defeasance, you could still look to us for repayment of the debt securities if there were a shortfall in the trust deposit. In fact, if one of the events of default occurred (such as our bankruptcy) and the debt securities become immediately due and payable, there may be such a shortfall. Depending on the events causing the default, you may not be able to obtain payment of the shortfall.

Modification and Waiver

We and the trustee may amend or supplement the senior indenture or the senior debt securities without the consent of any holder:

 

   

to convey, transfer, assign, mortgage or pledge any assets as security for the senior debt securities of one or more series;

 

   

to evidence the succession of a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust to us, and the assumption by such successor of our covenants, agreements and obligations under the senior indenture or to otherwise comply with the covenant relating to mergers, consolidations and sales of assets;

 

   

to comply with the requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the senior indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act;

 

   

to add to our covenants such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the protection of the holders, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default;

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the senior indenture or in any supplemental indenture or to conform the senior indenture or the senior debt securities to the description of senior debt securities of such series set forth in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement;

 

   

to provide for or add guarantors with respect to the senior debt securities of any series;

 

   

to establish the form or forms or terms of the senior debt securities as permitted by the senior indenture;

 

   

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under the senior indenture by a successor trustee, or to make such changes as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts in the senior indenture by more than one trustee;

 

   

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of any series of senior debt securities;

 

   

to make any change to the senior debt securities of any series so long as no senior debt securities of such series are outstanding; or

 

   

to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder in any material respect.

Other amendments and modifications of the senior indenture or the senior debt securities issued may be made, and our compliance with any provision of the senior indenture with respect to any series of senior debt securities may be waived, with the consent of the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding senior debt securities of all series affected by the amendment or modification (voting together as a single class); provided, however, that each affected holder must consent to any modification, amendment or waiver that:

 

   

extends the final maturity of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

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reduces the principal amount of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the rate or extends the time of payment of interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the amount payable upon the redemption of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

changes the currency of payment of principal of or interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the principal amount of original issue discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity or the amount provable in bankruptcy;

 

   

waives an uncured default in the payment of principal of or interest on the senior debt securities (except in the case of a rescission of acceleration as described above);

 

   

changes the provisions relating to the waiver of past defaults or changes or impairs the right of holders to receive payment or to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment or conversion of any senior debt securities of such series on or after the due date therefor;

 

   

modifies any of the provisions of these restrictions on amendments and modifications, except to increase any required percentage or to provide that certain other provisions cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the holder of each senior debt security of such series affected by the modification; or

 

   

reduces the above-stated percentage of outstanding senior debt securities of such series whose holders must consent to a supplemental indenture or modifies, amends or waives certain provisions of or defaults under the senior indenture.

It shall not be necessary for the holders to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, supplement or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if the holders’ consent approves the substance thereof. After an amendment, supplement or waiver of the senior indenture in accordance with the provisions described in this section becomes effective, the trustee must give to the holders affected thereby certain notice briefly describing the amendment, supplement or waiver. Any failure by the trustee to give such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such amendment, supplemental indenture or waiver.

No Personal Liability of Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers, Directors

The senior indenture provides that no recourse shall be had under any obligation, covenant or agreement of ours in the senior indenture or any supplemental indenture, or in any of the senior debt securities or because of the creation of any indebtedness represented thereby, against any of our incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors, past, present or future, or of any predecessor or successor entity thereof under any law, statute or constitutional provision or by the enforcement of any assessment or by any legal or equitable proceeding or otherwise. Each holder, by accepting the senior debt securities, waives and releases all such liability.

Concerning the Trustee

The senior indenture provides that, except during the continuance of an event of default, the trustee will not be liable except for the performance of such duties as are specifically set forth in the senior indenture. If an event of default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee will exercise such rights and powers vested in it under the senior indenture and will use the same degree of care and skill in its exercise as a prudent person would exercise under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

The senior indenture and the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act incorporated by reference therein contain limitations on the rights of the trustee thereunder, should it become a creditor of ours or our subsidiary, to obtain payment of claims in certain cases or to realize on certain property received by it in respect of any such claims, as security or otherwise. The trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions, provided that if it acquires any conflicting interest (as defined in the Trust Indenture Act), it must eliminate such conflict or resign.

We may have normal banking relationships with the senior trustee in the ordinary course of business.

 

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Unclaimed Funds

All funds deposited with the trustee or any paying agent for the payment of principal, premium, interest or additional amounts in respect of the senior debt securities that remain unclaimed for two years after the date upon which such principal, premium, interest or additional amounts became due and payable will be repaid to us. Thereafter, any right of any holder of senior debt securities to such funds shall be enforceable only against us, and the trustee and paying agents will have no liability therefor.

Governing Law

The senior indenture and the senior debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York.

Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities

Other than the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities relating to subordination or otherwise as described in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of subordinated debt securities, the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities are identical in all material respects to the terms of the senior indenture and senior debt securities.

Additional or different subordination terms may be specified in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series.

Subordination

The indebtedness evidenced by the subordinated debt securities is subordinate to the prior payment in full of all of our senior indebtedness, as defined in the subordinated indenture. During the continuance beyond any applicable grace period of any default in the payment of principal, premium, interest or any other payment due on any of our senior indebtedness, we may not make any payment of principal of or interest on the subordinated debt securities (except for certain sinking fund payments). In addition, upon any payment or distribution of our assets upon any dissolution, winding-up, liquidation or reorganization, the payment of the principal of and interest on the subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the extent provided in the subordinated indenture in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all our senior indebtedness. Because of this subordination, if we dissolve or otherwise liquidate, holders of our subordinated debt securities may receive less, ratably, than holders of our senior indebtedness. The subordination provisions do not prevent the occurrence of an event of default under the subordinated indenture.

The term “senior indebtedness” of a person means with respect to such person the principal of, premium, if any, interest on, and any other payment due pursuant to any of the following, whether outstanding on the date of the subordinated indenture or incurred by that person in the future:

 

   

all of the indebtedness of that person for money borrowed;

 

   

all of the indebtedness of that person evidenced by notes, debentures, bonds or other securities sold by that person for money;

 

   

all of the lease obligations that are capitalized on the books of that person in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

 

   

all indebtedness of others of the kinds described in the first two bullet points above and all lease obligations of others of the kind described in the third bullet point above that the person, in any manner, assumes or guarantees or that the person in effect guarantees through an agreement to purchase, whether that agreement is contingent or otherwise; and

 

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all renewals, extensions or refundings of indebtedness of the kinds described in the first, second or fourth bullet point above and all renewals or extensions of leases of the kinds described in the third or fourth bullet point above;

unless, in the case of any particular indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding, the instrument creating or evidencing it or the assumption or guarantee relating to it expressly provides that such indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding is not superior in right of payment to the subordinated debt securities. Our senior debt securities constitute senior indebtedness for purposes of the subordinated debt indenture.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our capital stock is intended as a summary only and therefore is not complete. This description is based upon, and is qualified by reference to, our restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws, each as amended from time to time, and by applicable provisions of Delaware corporate law. You should read our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, for the provisions that are important to you.

Our authorized capital stock consists of 200,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share. As of September 30, 2018, 56,242,571 shares of common stock were outstanding and no shares of preferred stock were outstanding.

Common Stock

Voting Rights. Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. An election of directors by our stockholders will be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election. Other matters shall be decided by the affirmative vote of our stockholders having a majority in voting power of the votes cast by the stockholders present or represented and voting on such matter, except as otherwise disclosed below.

Dividends. Holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of outstanding preferred stock.

Liquidation and Dissolution. In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately all assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock.

Other Rights. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Transfer Agent and Registrar. The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

Listing on The Nasdaq Global Select Market. Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “APLS.”

Preferred Stock

Under the terms of our restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors is authorized to issue shares of preferred stock in one or more series without stockholder approval. Our board of directors has the discretion to determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock.

A series of our preferred stock could, depending on the terms of such series, impede the completion of a merger, tender offer or other takeover attempt. Our board of directors will make any determination to issue preferred shares based upon its judgment as to the best interests of our stockholders. Our directors, in so acting, could issue preferred stock having terms that could discourage an acquisition attempt through which an acquirer may be able to change the composition of our board of directors, including a tender offer or other transaction that some, or a majority, of our stockholders might believe to be in their best interests or in which stockholders might receive a premium for their stock over the then-current market price of the stock.

 

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The preferred stock has the terms described below unless otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of preferred stock. You should read the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of preferred stock being offered for specific terms, including:

 

   

the designation and stated value per share of the preferred stock and the number of shares offered;

 

   

the amount of liquidation preference per share;

 

   

the price at which the preferred stock will be issued;

 

   

the dividend rate, or method of calculation of dividends, the dates on which dividends will be payable, whether dividends will be cumulative or noncumulative and, if cumulative, the dates from which dividends will commence to accumulate;

 

   

any redemption or sinking fund provisions;

 

   

if other than the currency of the United States, the currency or currencies including composite currencies in which the preferred stock is denominated and/or in which payments will or may be payable;

 

   

any conversion provisions; and

 

   

any other rights, preferences, privileges, limitations and restrictions on the preferred stock.

The preferred stock will, when issued, be fully paid and non-assessable. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, each series of preferred stock will rank equally as to dividends and liquidation rights in all respects with each other series of preferred stock. The rights of holders of shares of each series of preferred stock will be subordinate to those of our general creditors.

Rank. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, rank:

 

   

senior to our common stock and to all equity securities ranking junior to such preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

   

on a parity with all equity securities issued by us, the terms of which specifically provide that such equity securities rank on a parity with the preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs; and

 

   

junior to all equity securities issued by us, the terms of which specifically provide that such equity securities rank senior to the preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs.

The term “equity securities” does not include convertible debt securities.

Dividends. Holders of the preferred stock of each series will be entitled to receive, when, as and if declared by our board of directors, cash dividends at such rates and on such dates described in the prospectus supplement. Different series of preferred stock may be entitled to dividends at different rates or based on different methods of calculation. The dividend rate may be fixed or variable or both. Dividends will be payable to the holders of record as they appear on our stock books on record dates fixed by our board of directors, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Dividends on any series of preferred stock may be cumulative or noncumulative, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If our board of directors does not declare a dividend payable on a dividend payment date on any series of noncumulative preferred stock, then the holders of that noncumulative preferred stock will have no right to receive a dividend for that dividend payment date, and we will have no obligation to pay the dividend accrued for that period, whether or not dividends on that series are declared payable on any future dividend payment dates. Dividends on any series of cumulative preferred stock will accrue from the date we initially issue shares of such series or such other date specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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No dividends may be declared or paid or funds set apart for the payment of any dividends on any parity securities unless full dividends have been paid or set apart for payment on the preferred stock. If full dividends are not paid, the preferred stock will share dividends pro rata with the parity securities.

No dividends may be declared or paid or funds set apart for the payment of dividends on any junior securities unless full dividends for all dividend periods terminating on or prior to the date of the declaration or payment will have been paid or declared and a sum sufficient for the payment set apart for payment on the preferred stock.

Liquidation Preference. Upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, then, before we make any distribution or payment to the holders of any common stock or any other class or series of our capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock in the distribution of assets upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, the holders of each series of preferred stock shall be entitled to receive out of assets legally available for distribution to stockholders, liquidating distributions in the amount of the liquidation preference per share set forth in the prospectus supplement, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends thereon. Such dividends will not include any accumulation in respect of unpaid noncumulative dividends for prior dividend periods. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, after payment of the full amount of their liquidating distributions, the holders of preferred stock will have no right or claim to any of our remaining assets. Upon any such voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up, if our available assets are insufficient to pay the amount of the liquidating distributions on all outstanding preferred stock and the corresponding amounts payable on all other classes or series of our capital stock ranking on parity with the preferred stock and all other such classes or series of shares of capital stock ranking on parity with the preferred stock in the distribution of assets, then the holders of the preferred stock and all other such classes or series of capital stock will share ratably in any such distribution of assets in proportion to the full liquidating distributions to which they would otherwise be entitled.

Upon any such liquidation, dissolution or winding up and if we have made liquidating distributions in full to all holders of preferred stock, we will distribute our remaining assets among the holders of any other classes or series of capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock according to their respective rights and preferences and, in each case, according to their respective number of shares. For such purposes, our consolidation or merger with or into any other corporation, trust or entity, or the sale, lease or conveyance of all or substantially all of our property or assets will not be deemed to constitute a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs.

Redemption. If so provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will be subject to mandatory redemption or redemption at our option, as a whole or in part, in each case upon the terms, at the times and at the redemption prices set forth in such prospectus supplement.

The prospectus supplement relating to a series of preferred stock that is subject to mandatory redemption will specify the number of shares of preferred stock that shall be redeemed by us in each year commencing after a date to be specified, at a redemption price per share to be specified, together with an amount equal to all accrued and unpaid dividends thereon to the date of redemption. Unless the shares have a cumulative dividend, such accrued dividends will not include any accumulation in respect of unpaid dividends for prior dividend periods. We may pay the redemption price in cash or other property, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. If the redemption price for preferred stock of any series is payable only from the net proceeds of the issuance of shares of our capital stock, the terms of such preferred stock may provide that, if no such shares of our capital stock shall have been issued or to the extent the net proceeds from any issuance are insufficient to pay in full the aggregate redemption price then due, such preferred stock shall automatically and mandatorily be converted into the applicable shares of our capital stock pursuant to conversion provisions specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we will not redeem any preferred stock of a series unless:

 

   

if that series of preferred stock has a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full cumulative dividends on the preferred stock for all past dividend periods and the then current dividend period; or

 

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if such series of preferred stock does not have a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full dividends for the then current dividend period.

In addition, we will not acquire any preferred stock of a series unless:

 

   

if that series of preferred stock has a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full cumulative dividends on all outstanding shares of such series of preferred stock for all past dividend periods and the then current dividend period; or

 

   

if that series of preferred stock does not have a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full dividends on the preferred stock of such series for the then current dividend period.

However, at any time we may purchase or acquire preferred stock of that series (1) pursuant to a purchase or exchange offer made on the same terms to holders of all outstanding preferred stock of such series or (2) by conversion into or exchange for shares of our capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock of such series as to dividends and upon liquidation.

If fewer than all of the outstanding shares of preferred stock of any series are to be redeemed, we will determine the number of shares that may be redeemed pro rata from the holders of record of such shares in proportion to the number of such shares held or for which redemption is requested by such holder or by any other equitable manner that we determine. Such determination will reflect adjustments to avoid redemption of fractional shares.

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, we will mail notice of redemption at least 30 days but not more than 60 days before the redemption date to each holder of record of preferred stock to be redeemed at the address shown on our stock transfer books. Each notice shall state:

 

   

the redemption date;

 

   

the number of shares and series of preferred stock to be redeemed;

 

   

the redemption price;

 

   

the place or places where certificates for such preferred stock are to be surrendered for payment of the redemption price;

 

   

that dividends on the shares to be redeemed will cease to accrue on such redemption date;

 

   

the date on which the holder’s conversion rights, if any, as to such shares shall terminate; and

 

   

the specific number of shares to be redeemed from each such holder if fewer than all the shares of any series are to be redeemed.

If notice of redemption has been given and we have set aside the funds necessary for such redemption in trust for the benefit of the holders of any shares called for redemption, then from and after the redemption date, dividends will cease to accrue on such shares, and all rights of the holders of such shares will terminate, except the right to receive the redemption price.

Voting Rights. Holders of preferred stock will not have any voting rights, except as required by law or as indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unless otherwise provided for under the terms of any series of preferred stock, no consent or vote of the holders of shares of preferred stock or any series thereof shall be required for any amendment to our restated

 

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certificate of incorporation that would increase the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or the number of authorized shares of any series thereof or decrease the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or the number of authorized shares of any series thereof (but not below the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or such series, as the case may be, then outstanding).

Conversion Rights. The terms and conditions, if any, upon which any series of preferred stock is convertible into our common stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating thereto. Such terms will include the number of shares of common stock into which the shares of preferred stock are convertible, the conversion price, rate or manner of calculation thereof, the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at our option or at the option of the holders of the preferred stock, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption.

Transfer Agent and Registrar. The transfer agent and registrar for the preferred stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Registration Rights

Our investors’ rights agreement provides specified holders of shares of our common stock, including some of our directors and 5% stockholders and their respective affiliates and entities affiliated with our officers and directors, the right to require us to register such shares under the Securities Act under specified circumstances as described below. After registration pursuant to these rights, these shares will become freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act.

Demand Registration Rights

Beginning six months after the closing of our initial public offering, subject to specified limitations set forth in the investors’ rights agreement, at any time the holders of a majority of then outstanding registrable securities, as defined in the investors’ rights agreement, acting together, may demand in writing that we register their registrable securities under the Securities Act so long as the total amount of registrable shares requested to be registered has an anticipated aggregate offering price to the public, net of selling expenses, of least $5.0 million. We are not obligated to file a registration statement pursuant to this demand provision on more than two occasions, subject to specified exceptions.

In addition, at any time after we become eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act, subject to specified limitations, the holders of at least 30% of the registrable securities then outstanding may demand in writing that we register on Form S-3 registrable shares held by them so long as the total amount of registrable shares requested to be registered has an anticipated aggregate offering price to the public, net of selling expenses, of least $1.0 million.

Incidental Registration Rights

If we propose to file a registration statement to register any of our securities under the Securities Act, either for our own account or for the account of any of our stockholders that are not holders of registrable shares, solely for cash and on a form that would also permit the registration of registrable shares, the holders of our registrable shares are entitled to notice of registration and, subject to specified exceptions, we will be required to register the registrable shares then held by them that they request that we register.

Expenses

Pursuant to the investors’ rights agreement, we are required to pay all registration expenses, including registration fees, printing expenses, fees and disbursements of our counsel and accountants and reasonable fees and disbursements of one counsel representing the selling stockholders, other than any underwriting discounts

 

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and commissions, related to any demand or incidental registration. The investors’ rights agreement contains customary cross-indemnification provisions, pursuant to which we are obligated to indemnify the selling stockholders in the event of material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to us, and they are obligated to indemnify us for material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to them.

Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law and Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

Delaware law contains, our restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws contain, provisions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another party from acquiring control of us. These provisions, which are summarized below, are expected to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors.

Staggered Board; Removal of Directors

Our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws divide our board of directors into three classes with staggered three-year terms. In addition, a director may be removed only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all of our stockholders would be entitled to cast in an annual election of directors. Any vacancy on our board of directors, including a vacancy resulting from an enlargement of our board of directors, may be filled only by vote of a majority of our directors then in office. The classification of our board of directors and the limitations on the removal of directors and filling of vacancies could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, control of the Company.

Stockholder Action by Written Consent; Special Meetings

Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that any action required or permitted to be taken by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of such holders and may not be effected by any consent in writing by such holders. Our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws also provide that, except as otherwise required by law, special meetings of our stockholders can only be called by our chairman of the board, our chief executive officer or our board of directors.

Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals

Our amended and restated bylaws establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of stockholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors. Stockholders at an annual meeting may consider proposals or nominations specified in the notice of meeting or brought before the meeting by or at the direction of our board of directors or by a stockholder of record on the record date for the meeting who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has delivered timely written notice in proper form to our secretary of the stockholder’s intention to bring such business before the meeting. These provisions could have the effect of delaying until the next stockholder meeting stockholder actions that are favored by the holders of a majority of our outstanding voting securities.

Delaware Business Combination Statute

We are subject to Section 203 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware. Subject to certain exceptions, Section 203 prevents a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with any “interested stockholder” for three years following the date that the person became an interested stockholder, unless the interested stockholder attained such status with the approval of our board of directors or unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. A “business combination” includes, among other things, a merger or consolidation involving us and the “interested stockholder” and the

 

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sale of more than 10% of our assets. In general, an “interested stockholder” is any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person.

Amendment of Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

The General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, as the case may be, requires a greater percentage. Our amended and restated bylaws may be amended or repealed by a majority vote of our board of directors or by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all of our stockholders would be entitled to cast in any annual election of directors. In addition, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all of our stockholders would be entitled to cast in any annual election of directors is required to amend or repeal or to adopt any provisions inconsistent with any of the provisions of our restated certificate of incorporation described above under “—Staggered Board; Removal of Directors” and “—Stockholder Action by Written Consent; Special Meetings.”

Exclusive Forum Selection

Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Company, (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, employees or stockholders to the Company or our stockholders, (3) any action asserting a claim against the Company arising pursuant to any provision of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware or our restated certificate of incorporation or amended and restated bylaws, or (4) any action asserting a claim against the Company governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Although our restated certificate of incorporation contains the choice of forum provision described above, it is possible that a court could rule that such a provision is inapplicable for a particular claim or action or that such provision is unenforceable.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities that may be offered under this prospectus, in any combination. The following, together with the additional information we may include in the applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms summarized below will apply generally to any units we may offer, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately at any time, or at any time before a specified date.

Any applicable prospectus supplement will describe:

 

   

the material terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

   

any material provisions relating to the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

 

   

any material provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described above.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. We may offer warrants separately or together with one or more additional warrants, common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we issue warrants as part of a unit, the accompanying prospectus supplement will specify whether those warrants may be separated from the other securities in the unit prior to the expiration date of the warrants. The applicable prospectus supplement will also describe the following terms of any warrants:

 

   

the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the offering price at which we will issue, the warrants;

 

   

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;

 

   

whether the warrants are to be sold separately or with other securities as parts of units;

 

   

whether the warrants will be issued in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms, although, in any case, the form of a warrant included in a unit will correspond to the form of the unit and of any security included in that unit;

 

   

any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences;

 

   

the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;

 

   

the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;

 

   

the designation and terms of any equity securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

the designation, aggregate principal amount, currency and terms of any debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the preferred stock with which the warrants are issued and, the number of warrants issued with each security;

 

   

if applicable, the date from and after which any warrants issued as part of a unit and the related preferred stock, common stock or debt security will be separately transferable;

 

   

the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of a warrant and the price at which those shares may be purchased;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

   

the anti-dilution provisions of, and other provisions for changes to or adjustment in the exercise price of, the warrants, if any;

 

   

any redemption or call provisions; and

 

   

any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange or exercise of the warrants.

 

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FORMS OF SECURITIES

Each debt security, warrant and unit will be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, certificated securities will be issued in definitive form and global securities will be issued in registered form. Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable. Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the debt securities, warrants or units represented by these global securities. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor’s beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker/dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.

Global Securities

We may issue the debt securities, warrants and units in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees.

If not described below, any specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any securities to be represented by a global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.

Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some states may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in global securities.

So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture, warrant or unit agreement. Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the applicable indenture, warrant or unit agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture, warrant or unit agreement. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture, warrant or unit

 

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agreement, the depositary for the global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

Principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on debt securities, and any payments to holders with respect to warrants or units, represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security. None of us, or any trustee, warrant agent, unit agent or any other agent of ours, or any agent of any trustee, warrant agent or unit agent will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.

We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security, upon receipt of any payment to holders of principal, premium, interest or other distribution of underlying securities or other property on that registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of those participants.

If the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the global security that had been held by the depositary. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee, warrant agent, unit agent or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary’s instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global security that had been held by the depositary.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

Securities Offered by Us

We may sell securities:

 

   

to or through underwriters;

 

   

to or through brokers or dealers;

 

   

through agents;

 

   

directly to one or more purchasers in negotiated sales or competitively bid transactions; or

 

   

through a block trade in which the broker or dealer engaged to handle the block trade will attempt to sell the securities as agent, but may position and resell a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction; or

 

   

through a combination of any of these methods of sale.

In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. We will, in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act, and describe any commissions that we must pay. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis.

The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price, or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.

The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

 

   

the name of the agent or any underwriters;

 

   

the public offering or purchase price and the proceeds we will receive from the sale of the securities;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;

 

   

all other items constituting underwriting compensation;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.

If any underwriters or agents are utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.

 

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If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.

Remarketing firms, agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements which they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

 

   

the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

 

   

if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.

Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, and/or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may overallot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise or the securities are sold by us to an underwriter in a firm commitment underwritten offering. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the

 

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trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.

In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, to the extent applicable, the aggregate maximum discount, commission or agency fees or other items constituting underwriting compensation to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer will not exceed 8% of the proceeds from any offering pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.

Common Stock Offered by the Selling Stockholders

The shares of common stock covered by this prospectus for offering and sale by the selling stockholders may be offered and sold from time to time by the selling stockholders. The term “selling stockholders” includes transferees, pledgees, or donees or other successors-in-interest selling shares received after the date of this prospectus from the selling stockholders as a gift, pledge, partnership distribution or other non-sale related transfer. The selling stockholders will act independently of us in making decisions with respect to the timing, manner, and size of each sale. Such sales may be made on one or more exchanges or in the over-the-counter market or otherwise, at prices and under terms then prevailing or at prices related to the then current market price, or in negotiated transactions. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of common stock by the selling stockholders. The selling stockholders may sell their shares by one or more of, or a combination of, the following methods:

 

   

purchases by a broker-dealer as principal and resale by such broker-dealer for its own account pursuant to this prospectus;

 

   

ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which the broker solicits purchasers;

 

   

block trades in which the broker-dealer so engaged will attempt to sell the shares as agent but may position and resell a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction;

 

   

over-the-counter distributions in accordance with the rules of the Nasdaq Global Select Market;

 

   

privately negotiated transactions;

 

   

options transactions;

 

   

combinations of any of such methods; and

 

   

any other method permitted by applicable law.

In addition, any shares that qualify for sale pursuant to Rule 144 may be sold under Rule 144 rather than pursuant to this prospectus.

To the extent required, this prospectus may be amended or supplemented from time to time to describe a specific plan of distribution. In connection with distributions of the shares or otherwise, the selling stockholders may enter into hedging transactions with broker-dealers or other financial institutions. In connection with such transactions, broker-dealers or other financial institutions may engage in short sales of the common stock in the course of hedging the positions they assume with the selling stockholders. The selling stockholders may also sell the common stock short and redeliver the shares to close out such short positions. The selling stockholders may also enter into option or other transactions with broker-dealers or other financial institutions that require the delivery to such broker-dealer or other financial institution of shares offered by this prospectus, which shares

 

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such broker-dealer or other financial institution may resell pursuant to this prospectus (as supplemented or amended to reflect such transaction). The selling stockholders may also pledge shares to a broker-dealer or other financial institution, and, upon a default, such broker-dealer or other financial institution may effect sales of the pledged shares pursuant to this prospectus (as supplemented or amended to reflect such transaction).

In effecting sales, broker-dealers or agents engaged by the selling stockholders may arrange for other broker-dealers to participate. Broker-dealers or agents may receive commissions, discounts, or concessions from the selling stockholders in amounts to be negotiated immediately prior to the sale.

In offering the shares covered by this prospectus, the selling stockholders and any broker-dealers who execute sales for the selling stockholders may be deemed to be “underwriters” within the meaning of the Securities Act in connection with such sales. Any profits realized by the selling stockholders and the compensation of any broker-dealer may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions.

In order to comply with the securities laws of certain states, if applicable, the shares must be sold in such jurisdictions only through registered or licensed brokers or dealers. In addition, in certain states the shares may not be sold unless they have been registered or qualified for sale in the applicable state or an exemption from the registration or qualification requirement is available and is complied with. In addition, the anti-manipulation rules of Regulation M under the Exchange Act may apply to sales of shares in the market and to the activities of the selling stockholders and their affiliates.

We will make copies of this prospectus available to the selling stockholders for the purpose of satisfying the prospectus delivery requirements of the Securities Act. The selling stockholders may indemnify any broker-dealer that participates in transactions involving the sale of the shares against certain liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act.

At the time a particular offer of shares is made, if required, a prospectus supplement will be distributed that will set forth the number of shares being offered and the terms of the offering, including the name of any underwriter, dealer, or agent, the purchase price paid by any underwriter, any discount, commission, and other item constituting compensation, any discount, commission, or concession allowed or reallowed or paid to any dealer, and the proposed selling price to the public.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, the validity of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered will be passed upon by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the Company) incorporated by reference in the Company’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2017 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their report thereon (which contains an explanatory paragraph describing conditions that raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as described in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements) incorporated by reference therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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LOGO

Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

DEBT SECURITIES

COMMON STOCK

PREFERRED STOCK

UNITS

WARRANTS

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

December 28, 2018

 

 

 


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PROSPECTUS

$150,000,000

 

LOGO

Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Common Stock

 

 

This prospectus relates to the offer, issuance and sale from time to time of shares of our common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, having an aggregate offering price of up to $150,000,000 through Citigroup Global Markets Inc., our sales agent. These sales, if any, will be made pursuant to the terms of the equity distribution agreement dated December 28, 2018, between us and Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

Under the terms of the equity distribution agreement, we also may sell shares of our common stock to Citigroup Global Markets Inc. as principal for its own account at a price agreed upon at the time of the sale. If we sell shares of our common stock to Citigroup Global Markets Inc., as principal, we will enter into a separate agreement with Citigroup Global Markets Inc. and we will describe that agreement in a prospectus supplement or pricing supplement to the extent required by law.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “APLS.” The last reported sale price of our common stock on December 27, 2018 was $13.26 per share.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus will be made at market prices by any method that is deemed an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, or the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through The Nasdaq Global Select Market or on any other existing trading market for our common stock. Citigroup Global Markets Inc. is not required to sell any specific amount of securities, but will act as our sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of The Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

Citigroup Global Markets Inc. will be entitled to a commission of up to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold under the equity distribution agreement. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page 17 for additional information regarding the compensation to be paid to Citigroup Global Markets Inc. In connection with the sale of the shares of common stock on our behalf, Citigroup Global Markets Inc. will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of Citigroup Global Markets Inc. will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts.

 

 

Investing in these securities involves certain risks. See “Risk Factors” on page 7 of this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase our common stock.

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

Citigroup

December 28, 2018


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     2  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

     2  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     3  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     5  

RISK FACTORS

     7  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     9  

DIVIDEND POLICY

     10  

DILUTION

     11  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     13  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     17  

LEGAL MATTERS

     19  

EXPERTS

     19  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the “SEC” or the “Commission,” utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time offer shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $150,000,000 under this prospectus at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of offering.

Before buying any of the common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus and all of the information contained in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, as well as the additional information described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation by Reference.” These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference in this prospectus that was filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference herein were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreement, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

We have not, and Citigroup Global Markets Inc. has not, authorized anyone to provide you with any information other than that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or in any prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus that we authorize for use in connection with this offering and to which we have referred you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. This prospectus does not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in this prospectus or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference and any related prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to “we,” “our” and “us” refer, collectively, to Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiaries. The Apellis logo is our trademark. The other trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at http://www.apellis.com/. Our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information about us and our consolidated subsidiary and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-38276) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed) until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed.

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, including the information specifically incorporated by reference into the Annual Report on Form 10-K from our definitive proxy statement for the 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders;

 

   

Our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, June 30 and September 30, 2018;

 

   

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K dated March 30, 2018, June 4, 2018, September 4, 2018 and December 20, 2018; and

 

   

The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on November 3, 2017, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

You may request a copy of these documents, which will be provided to you at no cost, by writing or telephoning us using the following contact information:

6400 Westwind Way, Suite A

Crestwood, KY 40014

(502) 241-4114

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus include forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, contained in this herein and therein, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenue, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management and expected market growth are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “would” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

These forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements about:

 

   

our plans with respect to our ongoing and planned clinical trials for our product candidates, whether conducted by us or by any future collaborators, including the timing of these trials and of the anticipated results;

 

   

our plans to initiate clinical trials of APL-2;

 

   

the potential clinical benefits and attributes of APL-2 and the inhibition of C3;

 

   

our plans to develop APL-2 for any additional indications;

 

   

our plans to research, develop and commercialize our current and future product candidates;

 

   

our plans to potentially seek to enter into collaborations for the development and commercialization of certain product candidates;

 

   

the potential benefits of any future collaboration;

 

   

the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for our product candidates;

 

   

the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of any products for which we receive marketing approval;

 

   

our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy;

 

   

our intellectual property position and strategy;

 

   

our ability to identify additional products or product candidates with significant commercial potential;

 

   

our expectations related to the use of proceeds from this offering;

 

   

our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

   

developments relating to our competitors and our industry; and

 

   

the impact of government laws and regulations.

We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. You are cautioned that these forward-looking statements are only predictions and are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are referenced in the section of any accompanying prospectus supplement entitled “Risk Factors.” You should also carefully review the risk factors and cautionary statements described in the other documents we file from time to time with the SEC, specifically our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and our Current Reports on Form 8-K. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, collaborations, joint ventures or investments that we may make or enter into.

 

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You should read this prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights certain information about us, this offering and selected information contained elsewhere in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our common stock. For a more complete understanding of our company and this offering, we encourage you to read and consider carefully the more detailed information in this prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus and the information under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus on page 7.

Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of novel therapeutic compounds to treat disease through the inhibition of the complement system, which is an integral component of the immune system, at the level of C3, the central protein in the complement cascade. We believe that this approach can result in broad inhibition of the principal pathways of the complement system and has the potential to effectively control a broad array of complement-dependent autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

We have the most advanced clinical program targeting C3 with ongoing Phase 3 clinical trials of our lead product candidate, APL-2, in geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration, or GA, and in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, or PNH. We believe that APL-2 has the potential to be a best-in-class treatment that may address the limitations of existing treatment options or provide a treatment option where there currently is none. APL-2 has already shown activity that we believe is clinically meaningful in clinical trials for both GA and PNH. We initiated our Phase 3 GA clinical program consisting of two identical Phase 3 clinical trials evaluating APL-2 in patients with GA. We also initiated a Phase 3 clinical trial evaluating APL-2 in patients with PNH who are anemic while being treated with eculizumab, the only approved therapy for PNH, and plan to initiate a second Phase 3 clinical trial in patients with PNH who have not been previously treated with eculizumab.

We are also conducting clinical trials of APL-2 in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration, or wet AMD, and in two other complement-dependent disease areas, autoimmune hemolytic anemia and complement-dependent nephropathies. We are also developing novel compounds targeting C3 and plan to conduct clinical trials of APL-2 and these compounds in additional complement dependent diseases. We hold worldwide commercialization rights to APL-2 and those other novel compounds targeting C3.

Our principal executive offices are located at 6400 Westwind Way, Suite A, Crestwood, KY 40014, and our telephone number is (502) 241-4114.



 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by Apellis

Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $150,000,000.

 

Manner of offering

“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through Citigroup Global Markets Inc., our sales agent. See the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” on page 17 of this prospectus.

 

Use of proceeds

We expect to use the net proceeds from this offering to fund clinical development of APL-2, conduct research activities, repay outstanding indebtedness and for working capital and other general corporate purposes.

 

  We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds. See “Use of Proceeds” on page 9 of this prospectus.

 

Risk factors

See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 7 of this prospectus and the other information included in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus for a discussion of factors to consider carefully before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock.

 

Nasdaq Global Select Market symbol

“APLS”


 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our common stock, you should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below and under the section captioned “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and other filings we make with the SEC from time to time, which are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus, the information and documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and in any prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus that we authorize for use in connection with this offering. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could suffer materially. In such event, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you might lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to This Offering

If you purchase shares of common stock in this offering, you will suffer immediate dilution of your investment.

The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. However, the expected offering price of our common stock will be substantially higher than the net tangible book value per share of our common stock. Therefore, if you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you will pay a price per share that substantially exceeds our net tangible book value per share after this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 11,312,217 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $13.26 per share pursuant to this prospectus, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on December 27, 2018, for aggregate gross proceeds of $150,000,000, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, you will experience immediate dilution of $8.21 per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering and the assumed offering price of $13.26 per share. To the extent outstanding options are exercised, you will incur further dilution. For additional information on the dilution that you will experience immediately after this offering, see the section titled “Dilution.”

Sales of a significant number of shares of our common stock in the public markets, or the perception that such sales could occur, could depress the market price of our common stock.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares of common stock intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of our common stock. Therefore, it is possible that we could issue and sell additional shares of our common stock in the public markets. We cannot predict the effect that future sales of our common stock would have on the market price of our common stock.

In November 2017, we filed a registration statement registering all shares of common stock that we may issue under our equity compensation plans. As of November 30, 2018, we had options to purchase an aggregate of 7,790,376 shares of our common stock outstanding, of which options to purchase 4,015,396 shares were vested. These shares can be freely sold in the public market upon issuance, subject to volume limitations applicable to affiliates and the lock-up agreements described above. Moreover, as of November 30, 2018, holders of an aggregate of 11,178,984 shares of our common stock will have rights, subject to conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or other stockholders. If these additional shares are sold, or if it is perceived that they will be sold, in the public market, the trading price of our common stock could decline.

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may invest or spend the proceeds in ways with which you do not agree and in ways that may not yield a return on your investment.

Although we currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering in the manner described in the section titled “Use of Proceeds” in this prospectus, our management will have broad discretion in the application

 

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of the net proceeds from this offering and could spend the proceeds in ways that do not improve our results of operations or enhance the value of our common stock. You will not have the opportunity to influence our decisions on how to use our net proceeds from this offering. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could result in financial losses that could harm our business, cause the price of our common stock to decline and delay the development of our product candidates. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value.

We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future. Accordingly, stockholders must rely on capital appreciation, if any, for any return on their investment.

We have never declared nor paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently plan to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the operation, development and growth of our business. In addition, the terms of our term loan facility with Silicon Valley Bank precludes us from paying dividends, and any future debt or credit agreements may also preclude us from paying dividends. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate gross sales proceeds of up to $150,000,000 from time to time, before deducting sales agent commissions and expenses. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time.

We expect to use the net proceeds from this offering to fund clinical development of APL-2, conduct research activities, repay outstanding indebtedness and for working capital and other general corporate purposes.

The amounts and timing of our actual use of the net proceeds may vary significantly depending on numerous factors, including the progress of our research and development efforts, the status of and results from clinical trials, any collaborations that we may enter into with third parties for our programs, and any unforeseen cash needs. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to us from this offering. Accordingly, our management will have broad discretion in the timing and application of these proceeds.

Pending our use of the net proceeds from this offering, we intend to invest the net proceeds in money market funds, government-insured bank deposit accounts or U.S. government securities.

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared nor paid cash dividends on our common stock. We currently intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business. In addition, our term loan facility with Silicon Valley Bank contains restrictive covenants that prohibit us, subject to certain exceptions, from paying dividends on our common stock, and future debt securities or other financing arrangements could contain similar or more restrictive negative covenants. We do not intend to pay cash dividends in respect of our common stock in the foreseeable future.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock, your ownership interest will be diluted immediately to the extent of the difference between the price per share you pay in this offering and the as adjusted tangible book value per share of our common stock after this offering.

Our historical net tangible book value as of September 30, 2018 was $196.0 million, or $3.48 per share of common stock. Our historical net tangible book value per share represents the amount of our total tangible assets less total liabilities, divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2018.

After giving effect to the sale of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $150,000,000 in this offering at an assumed offering price of $13.26 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on December 27, 2018, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of September 30, 2018 would have been $340.9 million, or $5.05 per share. This represents an immediate increase of $1.56 in as adjusted net tangible book value per share to existing stockholders and immediate dilution of $8.21 in as adjusted net tangible book value per share to investors purchasing common stock in this offering. Dilution per share to investors purchasing common stock in this offering is determined by subtracting as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the price paid per share paid by investors purchasing common stock in this offering. The following table illustrates this calculation on a per share basis.

The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices.

 

Assumed offering price per share

      $ 13.26  

Historical net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2018

   $ 3.48     

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to investors purchasing shares of our common stock in this offering

     1.56     
  

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering

        5.05  
     

 

 

 

Dilution per share to investors purchasing common stock in this offering

      $ 8.21  
     

 

 

 

The as adjusted information is illustrative only and will adjust based on the actual price to the public, the actual number of shares sold and other terms of the offering determined at the time shares of our common stock are sold pursuant to this prospectus. The as adjusted information assumes that all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $150,000,000 is sold at the assumed offering price of $13.26 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on December 27, 2018. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices.

The table above excludes:

 

   

7,271,126 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of September 30, 2018, at a weighted-average exercise price of $7.44 per share;

 

   

537,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options granted after September 30, 2018, at a weighted average exercise price of $15.09 per share;

 

   

3,872,575 and 972,164 additional shares of our common stock available for future issuance, as of September 30, 2018, under our 2017 stock incentive plan and our 2017 employee stock purchase plan, respectively, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of common stock reserved under these plans; and

 

   

14,064 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of September 30, 2018, at an exercise price of $5.484 per share.

 

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To the extent that stock options or warrants are exercised, new stock options are issued under our equity incentive plans, or we issue additional shares of common stock in the future, there will be further dilution to investors participating in this offering.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our capital stock is intended as a summary only and therefore is not complete. This description is based upon, and is qualified by reference to, our restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws, each as amended from time to time, and by applicable provisions of Delaware corporate law. You should read our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, for the provisions that are important to you.

Our authorized capital stock consists of 200,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share. As of September 30, 2018, 56,242,571 shares of common stock were outstanding and no shares of preferred stock were outstanding.

Common Stock

Voting Rights. Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. An election of directors by our stockholders will be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election. Other matters shall be decided by the affirmative vote of our stockholders having a majority in voting power of the votes cast by the stockholders present or represented and voting on such matter, except as otherwise disclosed below.

Dividends. Holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of outstanding preferred stock.

Liquidation and Dissolution. In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately all assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock.

Other Rights. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Transfer Agent and Registrar. The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

Listing on The Nasdaq Global Select Market. Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “APLS.”

Preferred Stock

Under the terms of our restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors is authorized to issue shares of preferred stock in one or more series without stockholder approval. Our board of directors has the discretion to determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock.

The purpose of authorizing our board of directors to issue preferred stock and determine its rights and preferences is to eliminate delays associated with a stockholder vote on specific issuances. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions, future financings and other corporate purposes, could have the effect of making it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or could discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, a majority of our outstanding voting stock. As of the date of this prospectus, we have no shares of preferred stock outstanding, and we have no present plans to issue any shares of preferred stock.

 

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Registration Rights

Our investors’ rights agreement provides specified holders of shares of our common stock, including some of our directors and 5% stockholders and their respective affiliates and entities affiliated with our officers and directors, the right to require us to register such shares under the Securities Act under specified circumstances as described below. After registration pursuant to these rights, these shares will become freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act.

Demand Registration Rights

Beginning six months after the closing of our initial public offering, subject to specified limitations set forth in the investors’ rights agreement, at any time the holders of a majority of then outstanding registrable securities, as defined in the investors’ rights agreement, acting together, may demand in writing that we register their registrable securities under the Securities Act so long as the total amount of registrable shares requested to be registered has an anticipated aggregate offering price to the public, net of selling expenses, of least $5.0 million. We are not obligated to file a registration statement pursuant to this demand provision on more than two occasions, subject to specified exceptions.

In addition, at any time after we become eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act, subject to specified limitations, the holders of at least 30% of the registrable securities then outstanding may demand in writing that we register on Form S-3 registrable shares held by them so long as the total amount of registrable shares requested to be registered has an anticipated aggregate offering price to the public, net of selling expenses, of least $1.0 million.

Incidental Registration Rights

If we propose to file a registration statement to register any of our securities under the Securities Act, either for our own account or for the account of any of our stockholders that are not holders of registrable shares, solely for cash and on a form that would also permit the registration of registrable shares, the holders of our registrable shares are entitled to notice of registration and, subject to specified exceptions, we will be required to register the registrable shares then held by them that they request that we register.

Expenses

Pursuant to the investors’ rights agreement, we are required to pay all registration expenses, including registration fees, printing expenses, fees and disbursements of our counsel and accountants and reasonable fees and disbursements of one counsel representing the selling stockholders, other than any underwriting discounts and commissions, related to any demand or incidental registration. The investors’ rights agreement contains customary cross-indemnification provisions, pursuant to which we are obligated to indemnify the selling stockholders in the event of material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to us, and they are obligated to indemnify us for material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to them.

Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law and Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

Delaware law contains, our restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws contain, provisions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another party from acquiring control of us. These provisions, which are summarized below, are expected to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors.

Staggered Board; Removal of Directors

Our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws divide our board of directors into three classes with staggered three-year terms. In addition, a director may be removed only for cause and only by

 

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the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all of our stockholders would be entitled to cast in an annual election of directors. Any vacancy on our board of directors, including a vacancy resulting from an enlargement of our board of directors, may be filled only by vote of a majority of our directors then in office. The classification of our board of directors and the limitations on the removal of directors and filling of vacancies could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, control of the Company.

Stockholder Action by Written Consent; Special Meetings

Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that any action required or permitted to be taken by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of such holders and may not be effected by any consent in writing by such holders. Our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws also provide that, except as otherwise required by law, special meetings of our stockholders can only be called by our chairman of the board, our chief executive officer or our board of directors.

Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals

Our amended and restated bylaws establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of stockholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors. Stockholders at an annual meeting may consider proposals or nominations specified in the notice of meeting or brought before the meeting by or at the direction of our board of directors or by a stockholder of record on the record date for the meeting who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has delivered timely written notice in proper form to our secretary of the stockholder’s intention to bring such business before the meeting. These provisions could have the effect of delaying until the next stockholder meeting stockholder actions that are favored by the holders of a majority of our outstanding voting securities.

Delaware Business Combination Statute

We are subject to Section 203 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware. Subject to certain exceptions, Section 203 prevents a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with any “interested stockholder” for three years following the date that the person became an interested stockholder, unless the interested stockholder attained such status with the approval of our board of directors or unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. A “business combination” includes, among other things, a merger or consolidation involving us and the “interested stockholder” and the sale of more than 10% of our assets. In general, an “interested stockholder” is any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person.

Amendment of Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

The General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, as the case may be, requires a greater percentage. Our amended and restated bylaws may be amended or repealed by a majority vote of our board of directors or by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all of our stockholders would be entitled to cast in any annual election of directors. In addition, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all of our stockholders would be entitled to cast in any annual election of directors is required to amend or repeal or to adopt any provisions inconsistent with any of the provisions of our restated certificate of incorporation described above under “—Staggered Board; Removal of Directors” and “—Stockholder Action by Written Consent; Special Meetings.”

 

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Exclusive Forum Selection

Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Company, (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, employees or stockholders to the Company or our stockholders, (3) any action asserting a claim against the Company arising pursuant to any provision of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware or our restated certificate of incorporation or amended and restated bylaws, or (4) any action asserting a claim against the Company governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Although our restated certificate of incorporation contains the choice of forum provision described above, it is possible that a court could rule that such a provision is inapplicable for a particular claim or action or that such provision is unenforceable.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into an equity distribution agreement with Citigroup Global Markets Inc., or the Sales Agent, under which we may offer and sell common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $150,000,000 from time to time through the Sales Agent. The equity distribution agreement is filed as an exhibit to the Registration Statement on Form S-3 and is incorporated by reference in this prospectus. Sales of our common stock, if any, will be made at market prices by any method that is deemed to be an “at-the-market” equity offering as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through The Nasdaq Global Select Market or any other trading market for our common stock. The Sales Agent will not engage in any transactions that stabilize the price of our common stock.

Under the terms of the equity distribution agreement, we also may sell common stock to the Sales Agent as principal for its own account at a price agreed upon at the time of sale. If we sell common stock to the Sales Agent as principal, we will enter into a separate agreement with such Sales Agent, and we will describe that agreement in a prospectus supplement or pricing supplement to the extent required by law.

We will designate the maximum amount of common stock to be sold through the Sales Agent on a daily basis or otherwise as we and the Sales Agent agree, and the minimum price per share at which such common stock may be sold. Subject to the terms and conditions of the equity distribution agreement, the Sales Agent will use its reasonable efforts to sell, on our behalf, all of the designated common stock. We may instruct the Sales Agent not to sell any common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. We or the Sales Agent may suspend the offering of common stock at any time and from time to time by notifying the other party.

If shares of our common stock are sold by the Sales Agent in an at-the-market offering, the Sales Agent will provide written confirmation to us promptly following the close of trading on The Nasdaq Global Select Market each trading day on which shares of our common stock are sold under the equity distribution agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares of our common stock sold on the preceding day, the gross sales price, the net proceeds to us and the compensation payable by us to the Sales Agent in connection with the sales.

We will pay the Sales Agent a commission of up to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share of common stock sold through the Sales Agent under the equity distribution agreement. We have also agreed to reimburse the Sales Agent for certain specified expenses, including the fees and disbursements of its legal counsel in an aggregate amount not to exceed $50,000. We estimate that the total expenses payable by us in connection with the establishment of the program to offer shares of our common stock described in this prospectus, excluding commissions and reimbursements payable to the Sales Agent under the equity distribution agreement, will be approximately $350,000.

Settlement for sales of our common stock under the equity distribution agreement will occur on the second trading day following the date on which any sales are made, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and the Sales Agent in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

The offering of common stock pursuant to the equity distribution agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (1) the sale of all common stock subject to the equity distribution agreement or (2) the termination of the equity distribution agreement by us, by the Sales Agent or by its terms, as applicable.

In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, the Sales Agent will be deemed to be “underwriters” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation paid to the Sales Agent will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the Sales Agent against certain liabilities, including civil liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

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Other Relationships

The Sales Agent is a full service financial institution engaged in various activities, which may include securities trading, commercial and investment banking, financial advisory, investment management, principal investment, hedging, financing and brokerage activities. The Sales Agent and its affiliates have in the past performed commercial banking, investment banking and advisory services for us from time to time for which they have received no more than customary fees and reimbursement of expenses and may, from time to time, engage in transactions with and perform services for us in the ordinary course of their business for which they may receive customary fees and reimbursement of expenses. In the ordinary course of its various business activities, the Sales Agent and its respective affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (which may include bank loans and/or credit default swaps) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers and may at any time hold long and short positions in such securities and instruments. Such investments and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of ours or our affiliates. The Sales Agent and its affiliates may also make investment recommendations and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or financial instruments and may hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long and/or short positions in such securities and instruments. To the extent required by Regulation M, the Sales Agent will not engage in any market making activities involving our common stock while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Unless the applicable prospectus indicates otherwise, the validity of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered will be passed upon by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP, Boston, Massachusetts. Citigroup Global Markets Inc. is being represented by Cooley LLP, New York, New York in connection with this offering.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the Company) incorporated by reference in the Company’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2017 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their report thereon (which contains an explanatory paragraph describing conditions that raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as described in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements) incorporated by reference therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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$150,000,000

 

LOGO

Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Common Stock

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

Citigroup

December 28, 2018

 

 

 


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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14.

Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

The following table sets forth the fees and expenses payable by us in connection with the sale of the offered securities being registered hereby, other than underwriting discounts and commissions.

 

SEC registration fee

          (1) 

FINRA filing fee

   $ 225,000  

Printing and engraving

              (2) 

Accounting services

          (2) 

Legal fees of registrant’s counsel

          (2) 

Transfer agent’s and trustee’s fees and expenses

          (2) 

Miscellaneous fees and expenses

          (2) 
  

 

 

 

Total expenses

          (2) 
  

 

 

 

 

(1)

In accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r), we are deferring payment of the registration fee for the securities offered under this registration statement other than the fees due in connection with the $150,000,000 of our common stock that may be issued and sold from time to time under an equity distribution agreement with Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

(2)

These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuance and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.

 

Item 15.

Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

Section 102 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware permits a corporation to eliminate the personal liability of its directors for monetary damages for a breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except where the director breached his or her duty of loyalty, failed to act in good faith, engaged in intentional misconduct or knowingly violated a law, authorized the payment of a dividend or approved a stock repurchase in violation of Delaware corporate law or obtained an improper personal benefit. Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that none of our directors shall be personally liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for any breach of fiduciary duty as a director, notwithstanding any provision of law imposing such liability, except to the extent that the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware prohibits the elimination or limitation of liability of directors for breaches of fiduciary duty.

Section 145 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware provides that a corporation has the power to indemnify a director, officer, employee, or agent of the corporation and certain other persons serving at the request of the corporation in related capacities against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlements actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with an action, suit or proceeding to which he or she is or is threatened to be made a party by reason of such position, if such person acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, in any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful, except that, in the case of actions brought by or in the right of the corporation, no indemnification shall be made with respect to any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or other adjudicating court determines that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all of the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that we will indemnify each person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party or is involved in any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of us)


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by reason of the fact that he or she is or was, or has agreed to become, our director or officer, or is or was serving, or has agreed to serve, at our request as a director, officer, partner, employee or trustee of, or in a similar capacity with, another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise (all such persons being referred to as an “Indemnitee”), or by reason of any action alleged to have been taken or omitted in such capacity, against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with such action, suit or proceeding and any appeal therefrom, if such Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, our best interests, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, he or she had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. Our restated certificate of incorporation also provides that we will indemnify any Indemnitee who was or is a party to an action or suit by or in the right of us to procure a judgment in our favor by reason of the fact that the Indemnitee is or was, or has agreed to become, our director or officer, or is or was serving, or has agreed to serve, at our request as a director, officer, partner, employee or trustee of, or in a similar capacity with, another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, or by reason of any action alleged to have been taken or omitted in such capacity, against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) and, to the extent permitted by law, amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with such action, suit or proceeding, and any appeal therefrom, if the Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, our best interests, except that no indemnification shall be made with respect to any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to us, unless a court determines that, despite such adjudication but in view of all of the circumstances, he or she is entitled to indemnification of such expenses. Notwithstanding the foregoing, to the extent that any Indemnitee has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, he or she will be indemnified by us against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by him or her or on his or her behalf in connection therewith. If we do not assume the defense, expenses must be advanced to an Indemnitee under certain circumstances.

We have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and executive officers. These indemnification agreements may require us, among other things, to indemnify each such director or officer for some expenses, including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines and settlement amounts incurred by him or her in any action or proceeding arising out of his or her service as one of our directors or officers.

We maintain a general liability insurance policy that covers certain liabilities of our directors and officers arising out of claims based on acts or omissions in their capacities as directors or officers.

In any underwriting agreement we enter into in connection with the sale of common stock being registered hereby, the underwriters will agree to indemnify, under certain conditions, us, our directors, our officers and persons who control us within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, against certain liabilities.

Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, executive officers, or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, we have been informed that, in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

 

Item 16.

Exhibits

 

Exhibit
Number

  

Description

1.1*    Form of Underwriting Agreement
1.2    Equity Distribution Agreement, dated December 28, 2018, by and between the Registrant and Citigroup Global Markets Inc.
3.1    Restated Certificate Incorporation of the Registrant (filed as Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on November 13, 2017 and incorporated herein by reference)
3.2    Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant (filed as Exhibit 3.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on November 13, 2017 and incorporated herein by reference)


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  4.1    Specimen Stock Certificate evidencing the shares of common stock (filed as Exhibit 4.1 to Amendment No.  2 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 filed on October 27, 2017 and incorporated herein by reference)
  4.2    Investors’ Rights Agreement, dated as of August  7, 2017, among the Registrant and the other parties thereto (filed as Exhibit 4.2 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 filed on October  13, 2017 and incorporated herein by reference)
  4.3    Form of Senior Indenture
  4.4    Form of Subordinated Indenture
  4.5    Form of Senior Note
  4.6    Form of Subordinated Note
  4.7*    Form of Unit Agreement
  4.8*    Form of Warrant Agreement
  5.1    Opinion of Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP
23.1    Consent of Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm
23.2    Consent of Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)
24.1    Power of Attorney (included on the signature page)
25.1**    The Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Senior Indenture
25.2**    The Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Subordinated Indenture

 

*

To be filed by amendment or by a Current Report on Form 8-K.

**

To be filed pursuant to Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

 

Item 17.

Undertakings.

The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:

 

  (a)(1)

To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

  (i)

to include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act;

 

  (ii)

to reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of this registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in this registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

  (iii)

to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in this registration statement or any material change to such information in this registration statement;


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provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by a Registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of this registration statement.

 

  (2)

That, for the purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at the time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (3)

To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

  (4)

That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

 

  (i)

each prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

  (ii)

each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof; provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

  (5)

That, for the purpose of determining liability of the Registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned Registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned Registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned Registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

  (i)

any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned Registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

  (ii)

any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned Registrant;

 

  (iii)

the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned Registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant; and

 

  (iv)

any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned Registrant to the purchaser.


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  (6)

That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act:

 

  (i)

the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of the registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in the form of prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and

 

  (ii)

each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(b)

That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the Registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in this registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(c)

To supplement, if applicable, the prospectus, after the expiration of the subscription period, to set forth the results of the subscription offer, the transaction by the underwriters during the subscription period, the amount of unsubscribed securities to be purchased by the underwriters, and the terms of any subsequent reoffering thereof. If any public offering by the underwriters is to be made on terms differing from those set forth on the cover page of the prospectus, a post-effective amendment will be filed to set forth the terms of such offering.

 

(d)

To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(e)

That, insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the Registrant pursuant to the indemnification provisions described herein, or otherwise, the Registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the Registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.


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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Crestwood, Commonwealth of Kentucky, on December 28, 2018.

 

APELLIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
By:   /s/ Cedric Francois
  Cedric Francois, M.D., Ph.D.
  President and Chief Executive Officer


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SIGNATURES AND POWER OF ATTORNEY

We, the undersigned officers and directors of Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., hereby severally constitute and appoint Cedric Francois, M.D., Ph.D., Timothy Sullivan and David Watson, and each of them singly, our true and lawful attorneys with full power to any of them, and to each of them singly, to sign for us and in our names in the capacities indicated below the Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed herewith and any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to said Registration Statement and any registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, in connection with said Registration Statement, and to file or cause to be filed the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and generally to do all such things in our name and on our behalf in our capacities as officers and directors to enable Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. to comply with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and all requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission, hereby ratifying and confirming our signatures as they may be signed by our said attorneys, or any of them, to said Registration Statement and any and all amendments thereto.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ Cedric Francois

Cedric Francois, M.D., Ph.D.

  

President, Chief Executive Officer and Director

(principal executive officer)

  December 28, 2018

/s/ Timothy Sullivan

Timothy Sullivan

  

Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer

(principal financial officer)

  December 28, 2018

/s/ Nicole Perry

Nicole Perry

  

Vice President of Finance

(principal accounting officer)

  December 28, 2018

/s/ Gerald Chan

Gerald Chan, D.Sc.

   Chairman of the Board of Directors   December 28, 2018

/s/ A. Sinclair Dunlop

A. Sinclair Dunlop

   Director   December 28, 2018

/s/ Alec Machiels

Alec Machiels

   Director   December 28, 2018

/s/ Stephanie Monaghan O’Brien

Stephanie Monaghan O’Brien

   Director   December 28, 2018
EX-1.2

Exhibit 1.2

EXECUTION VERSION

Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

$150,000,000 Shares

Common Stock

($0.0001 par value per share)

Equity Distribution Agreement

December 28, 2018

Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

388 Greenwich Street

New York, New York, 10013

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a corporation organized under the laws of the State of Delaware (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with Citigroup Global Markets Inc. (the “Manager”) as follows:

1.    Description of Shares. The Company proposes to issue and sell through or to the Manager, as sales agent and/or principal, shares of the Company’s common stock, $0.0001 par value per share (“Common Stock”), having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $150,000,000 (the “Shares”), from time to time during the term of this Agreement and on the terms set forth in Section 3 of this Agreement. For purposes of selling the Shares through the Manager, the Company hereby appoints the Manager as exclusive agent of the Company for the purpose of selling the Shares pursuant to this Agreement and the Manager agrees to use its reasonable efforts to sell the Shares on the terms and subject to the conditions stated herein. The Company agrees that whenever it determines to sell the Shares directly to the Manager as principal, it will enter into a separate agreement (each, a “Terms Agreement”) in substantially the form of Annex I hereto, relating to such sale in accordance with Section 3 of this Agreement. Certain terms used herein are defined in Section 18 hereof.

2.    Representations and Warranties. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, the Manager at the Execution Time and on each such time the following representations, warranties and agreements are repeated or deemed to be made pursuant to this Agreement unless such representation, warranty or agreement specifies otherwise.

(a)    The Company meets the requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act and will prepare and file or has prepared and filed with the Commission an automatic shelf registration statement, as defined in Rule 405 on Form S-3, including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Common Stock, to be issued from time to time by the Company, as well as a prospectus included as part of the Registration Statement specifically relating to the sale of the Shares (the “Prospectus”). Such Registration Statement, including any amendments thereto filed prior to the Execution Time or prior to any such time this representation is repeated or deemed to be made, will become or became effective upon filing. The Prospectus will contain or contains


all information required by the Securities Act and the rules thereunder, and, except to the extent the Manager shall agree in writing to a modification, shall be in all substantive respects in the form furnished to the Manager prior to the Execution Time or prior to any such time this representation is repeated or deemed to be made. The Registration Statement, at the Effective Date will meet, and at each such time this representation is repeated or deemed to be made, and at all times during which a prospectus is required by the Securities Act to be delivered (whether physically or through compliance with Rule 172 or any similar rule) in connection with any offer or sale of Shares, meets the requirements set forth in Rule 415(a)(1)(x). The initial Effective Date of the Registration Statement was not earlier than the date three years before the Execution Time. Any reference herein to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein pursuant to Item 12 of Form S-3 which were filed under the Exchange Act on or before the Effective Date of the Registration Statement or the issue date of the Prospectus, as the case may be; and any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing of any document under the Exchange Act after the Effective Date of the Registration Statement or the issue date of the Prospectus, as the case may be, deemed to be incorporated therein by reference.

(b)    To the extent that the Registration Statement is not available for the sales of the Shares as contemplated by this Agreement or the Company is not a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 at the most recent “determination date” as defined in Rule 405 or otherwise is unable to make the representations set forth in Section 2(e) at any time when such representations are required, the Company shall, prior to requesting the sale of Shares pursuant to this Agreement, file a new registration statement or a post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement with respect to any additional shares of Common Stock necessary to complete such sales of the Shares and shall cause such registration statement to become effective as promptly as practicable. After the effectiveness of any such registration statement, all references to “Registration Statement” included in this Agreement shall be deemed to include such new registration statement, including all documents incorporated by reference therein pursuant to Item 12 of Form S-3, and all references to “Prospectus” included in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the final form of prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in any such registration statement at the time such registration statement or post-effective amendment became effective.

(c)    On each Effective Date, at each Applicable Time and at all times during which a prospectus is required by the Securities Act to be delivered (whether physically or through compliance with Rule 172 or any similar rule) in connection with any offer or sale of Shares, the Registration Statement complied and will comply in all material respects with the applicable requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act and the respective rules thereunder and did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading; and on the date of any filing of the Prospectus pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities Act, at each Applicable Time and at all times during which a prospectus is required by the Securities Act to be delivered (whether physically or through compliance with Rule 172 or any similar rule) in


connection with any offer or sale of Shares, the Prospectus (together with any supplement thereto) complied and will comply in all material respects with the applicable requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act and the respective rules thereunder and did not and will not include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; provided, however, that the Company makes no representations or warranties as to the information contained in or omitted from the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (or any supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with information furnished in writing to the Company by the Manager specifically for inclusion in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (or any supplement thereto).

(d)    At the Effective Date and at each Applicable Time, the Disclosure Package did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The preceding sentence does not apply to statements in or omissions from the Disclosure Package based upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Manager specifically for use therein.

(e)    (i) At the time of filing the Registration Statement, (ii) at the time of the most recent amendment thereto for the purposes of complying with Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act (whether such amendment was by post-effective amendment, incorporated report filed pursuant to Sections 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act or form of prospectus), (iii) at the time the Company or any person acting on its behalf (within the meaning, for this clause only, of Rule 163(c)) made any offer relating to the Shares in reliance on the exemption in Rule 163, and (iv) at the Execution Time, at the Effective Date and on each such time this representation is repeated or deemed to be made (with such date being used as the determination date for purposes of this clause (iv)), the Company was or is (as the case may be) a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405. The Company agrees to pay the fees required by the Commission relating to the Shares within the time required by Rule 456(b) and otherwise in accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r).

(f)    (i) At the earliest time after the filing of the Registration Statement that the Company or another offering participant made a bona fide offer (within the meaning of Rule 164(h)(2)) of the Shares and (ii) as of the Execution Time and the Effective Date and on each such time this representation is repeated or deemed to be made (with such date being used as the determination date for purposes of this clause (ii)), the Company was not and is not an Ineligible Issuer (as defined in Rule 405), without taking account of any determination by the Commission pursuant to Rule 405 that it is not necessary that the Company be considered an Ineligible Issuer.

(g)    Each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, if any, does not include any information that conflicts with the information contained in the Registration Statement, including any document incorporated therein by reference and any prospectus supplement deemed to be a part thereof that has not been superseded or modified. The foregoing sentence does not apply to statements in or omissions from any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus based upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Manager specifically for use therein.


(h)    The Registration Statement is not the subject of a pending proceeding or examination under Section 8(d) or 8(e) of the Securities Act, and the Company is not the subject of a pending proceeding under Section 8A of the Securities Act in connection with the offering of the Shares.

(i)    The Common Stock is an “actively-traded security” exempted from the requirements of Rule 101 of Regulation M under the Exchange Act by subsection (c)(1) of such rule.

(j)    The Company has not entered into any other sales agency agreements or other similar arrangements with any agent or any other representative in respect of at the market offerings of the Shares in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act.

(k)    The Company has not taken and will not take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that might be reasonably expected to cause or result in stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares.

(l)    There is no broker, finder or other party that is entitled to receive from the Company any brokerage or finder’s fee or other fee or commission as a result of any transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

(m)    The interactive data in the eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

(n)    Each of the Company and its subsidiaries (i) has been duly incorporated and is validly existing as a corporation in good standing (where such concept exists) under the laws of the jurisdiction in which it is chartered or organized with full corporate power and authority to own or lease, as the case may be, and to operate its properties and conduct its business as described in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, and (ii) is duly qualified to do business as a foreign corporation and is in good standing under the laws of each jurisdiction which requires such qualification, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a material adverse effect on the condition (financial or otherwise), prospects, earnings, business or properties of the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business (a “Material Adverse Effect”).

(o)    All the outstanding shares of capital stock of each subsidiary have been duly and validly authorized and issued and are fully paid and nonassessable, and, except as otherwise set forth in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, all outstanding shares of capital stock of the subsidiaries are owned by the Company either directly or through wholly owned subsidiaries free and clear of any perfected security interest or any other security interests, claims, liens or encumbrances.


(p)    There is no franchise, contract or other document of a character required to be described in the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or to be filed as an exhibit thereto, which is not described or filed as required; and the statements in the Prospectus under the heading “Description of Capital Stock”, insofar as such statements summarize legal matters, agreements, documents or proceedings discussed therein, are accurate and fair summaries of such legal matters, agreements, documents or proceedings.

(q)    This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company.

(r)    The Company is not and, after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Shares and the application of the proceeds thereof as described in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, will not be an “investment company” as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.

(s)    No consent, approval, authorization, filing with or order of any court or governmental agency or body is required in connection with the transactions contemplated herein, except such as have been obtained or as may be required under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, the listing rules of the Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”), applicable Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”) rules and the blue sky laws of any jurisdiction in connection with the purchase and distribution of the Shares by the Manager in the manner contemplated herein and in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus.

(t)    Neither the issue and sale of the Shares nor the consummation of any other of the transactions herein contemplated nor the fulfillment of the terms hereof will conflict with, result in a breach or violation of, or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries pursuant to, (i) the charter or by-laws of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, (ii) the terms of any indenture, contract, lease, mortgage, deed of trust, note agreement, loan agreement or other agreement, obligation, condition, covenant or instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or bound or to which its or their property is subject, or (iii) any statute, law, rule, regulation, judgment, order or decree applicable to the Company or any of its subsidiaries of any court, regulatory body, administrative agency, governmental body, arbitrator or other authority having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any of its or their properties, except in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii) as would not have a Material Adverse Effect or an adverse effect on the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby.

(u)    No holders of securities of the Company have rights to the registration of such securities under the Registration Statement except for such rights that have been effectively waived in writing.


(v)    The consolidated historical financial statements and schedules of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries included in the Prospectus and the Registration Statement present fairly in all material respects the financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of the Company as of the dates and for the periods indicated, comply as to form in all material respects with the applicable accounting requirements of the Securities Act and have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods involved (except as otherwise noted therein).

(w)    No action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries or its or their property is pending or, to the best knowledge of the Company, threatened that (i) could reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the performance of this Agreement or the consummation of any of the transactions contemplated hereby or (ii) could reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, except as set forth in or contemplated in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus (exclusive of any supplement thereto).

(x)    Each of the Company and each of its subsidiaries owns or leases all such properties as are necessary to the conduct of its operations as presently conducted in all material respects.

(y)    Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is in violation or default of (i) any provision of its charter or bylaws, (ii) the terms of any indenture, contract, lease, mortgage, deed of trust, note agreement, loan agreement or other agreement, obligation, condition, covenant or instrument to which it is a party or bound or to which its property is subject, or (iii) any statute, law, rule, regulation, judgment, order or decree applicable to the Company or any of its subsidiaries of any court, regulatory body, administrative agency, governmental body, arbitrator or other authority having jurisdiction over the Company or such subsidiary or any of its properties, as applicable, except in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii), for such violation or default as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(z)    Ernst & Young LLP (the “Accountants”), who have certified certain financial statements of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries and delivered their report with respect to the audited consolidated financial statements and schedules included or incorporated by reference in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, are independent public accountants with respect to the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act and the applicable published rules and regulations thereunder.

(aa)    There are no transfer taxes or other similar fees or charges under U.S. federal law or the laws of any state, or any political subdivision thereof, required to be paid in connection with the execution and delivery of this Agreement or the issuance by the Company or sale by the Company of the Shares.

(bb)    The Company has filed all tax returns that are required to be filed or has requested extensions thereof, except in any case in which the failure so to file would not


have a Material Adverse Effect (except as set forth in or contemplated in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus (exclusive of any supplement thereto)) and has paid all taxes required to be paid by it and any other assessment, fine or penalty levied against it, to the extent that any of the foregoing is due and payable, except for any such assessment, fine or penalty that is currently being contested in good faith or as would not have a Material Adverse Effect, except as set forth in or contemplated in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus (exclusive of any supplement thereto).

(cc)    No labor problem or dispute with the employees of the Company or any of its subsidiaries exists or, or the Company’s knowledge, is threatened or imminent, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by the employees of any of its or its subsidiaries’ principal suppliers, contractors or customers, that could have a Material Adverse Effect, except as set forth in or contemplated in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus (exclusive of any supplement thereto).

(dd)    The Company and each of its subsidiaries are insured by insurers of recognized financial responsibility against such losses and risks and in such amounts as the Company reasonably believes are prudent and customary in the businesses in which they are engaged; all policies of insurance and fidelity or surety bonds insuring the Company or any of its subsidiaries or their respective businesses, assets, employees, officers and directors are in full force and effect; the Company and its subsidiaries are in compliance with the terms of such policies and instruments in all material respects; and there are no claims by the Company or any of its subsidiaries under any such policy or instrument as to which any insurance company is denying liability or defending under a reservation of rights clause; neither the Company nor any such subsidiary has been refused any insurance coverage sought or applied for; and neither the Company nor any such subsidiary has any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business at a cost that would not have a Material Adverse Effect, except as set forth in or contemplated in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus (exclusive of any supplement thereto).

(ee)    No subsidiary of the Company is currently prohibited, directly or indirectly, from paying any dividends to the Company, from making any other distribution on such subsidiary’s capital stock, from repaying to the Company any loans or advances to such subsidiary from the Company or from transferring any of such subsidiary’s property or assets to the Company or any other subsidiary of the Company, except as described in or contemplated in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus (exclusive of any supplement thereto).

(ff)    The Company and its subsidiaries possess all licenses, certificates, permits and other authorizations issued by all applicable authorities necessary to conduct their respective businesses, except for the lack of which would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect, and neither the Company nor any such subsidiary has received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any such certificate, authorization or permit which, singly or in the aggregate, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding, would have a Material Adverse Effect, except as set forth in or contemplated in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus (exclusive of any supplement thereto).


(gg)    The Company and each of its subsidiaries maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States and to maintain asset accountability; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. The Company’s and its subsidiaries’ internal controls over financial reporting are effective and the Company and its subsidiaries are not aware of any material weakness in their internal controls over financial reporting.

(hh)    The Company and its subsidiaries maintain “disclosure controls and procedures” (as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(e) under the Exchange Act); such disclosure controls and procedures are effective.

(ii)    The Company has not taken, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that would constitute or that might reasonably be expected to cause or result in, under the Exchange Act or otherwise, stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares.

(jj)    Except as would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect, the Company and its subsidiaries (i) are in compliance with any and all applicable foreign, U.S. federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the protection of human health and safety, the environment or hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants (collectively, the “Environmental Laws”), (ii) have received and are in compliance with all permits, licenses or other approvals required of them under applicable Environmental Laws to conduct their respective businesses and (iii) have not received notice of any actual or potential liability under any environmental law, except as set forth in or contemplated in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus (exclusive of any supplement thereto). Except as set forth in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has been named as a “potentially responsible party” under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended.

(kk)    In the ordinary course of its business, the Company periodically reviews the effect of Environmental Laws on the business, operations and properties of the Company and its subsidiaries, in the course of which it identifies and evaluates associated costs and liabilities (including, without limitation, any capital or operating expenditures required for clean-up, closure of properties or compliance with Environmental Laws, or any permit, license or approval, any related constraints on operating activities and any potential liabilities to third parties). On the basis of such review, the Company has reasonably concluded that such associated costs and liabilities would not, singly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.


(ll)    None of the following events has occurred or exists: (i) a failure to fulfill the obligations, if any, under the minimum funding standards of Section 302 of the United States Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”), and the regulations and published interpretations thereunder with respect to a Plan that is required to be funded, determined without regard to any waiver of such obligations or extension of any amortization period that would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; (ii) an audit or investigation by the Internal Revenue Service, the U.S. Department of Labor, the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation or any other U.S. federal or state governmental agency or any foreign regulatory agency with respect to the employment or compensation of employees by any of the Company or any of its subsidiaries that would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; (iii) any breach of any contractual obligation, or any violation of law or applicable qualification standards, with respect to the employment or compensation of employees by the Company or any of its subsidiaries that would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. None of the following events has occurred or is reasonably likely to occur: (i) a material increase in the aggregate amount of contributions required to be made to all Plans in the current fiscal year of the Company and its subsidiaries compared to the amount of such contributions made in the most recently completed fiscal year of the Company and its subsidiaries; (ii) a material increase in the “accumulated post-retirement benefit obligations” (within the meaning of Statement of Financial Accounting Standards 106) of the Company and its subsidiaries compared to the amount of such obligations in the most recently completed fiscal year of the Company and its subsidiaries; (iii) any event or condition giving rise to a liability under Title IV of ERISA that would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; or (iv) the filing of a claim by one or more employees or former employees of the Company or any of its subsidiaries related to their employment that would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. For purposes of this paragraph, the term “Plan” means a plan (within the meaning of Section 3(3) of ERISA) subject to Title IV of ERISA with respect to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries may have any liability.

(mm)    There is and has been no failure on the part of the Company and any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply with any provision of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules and regulations promulgated in connection therewith (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), including Section 402 relating to loans and Sections 302 and 906 relating to certifications, as applicable.

(nn)    Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, agent, employee, affiliate or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is aware of or has taken any action, directly or indirectly, that would result in a violation or a sanction for violation by such persons of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 or the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, each as may be amended, or similar law of any other relevant jurisdiction, or the rules or regulations thereunder; and the Company and its subsidiaries have instituted and maintain policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance therewith. No part of the proceeds of the offering will be used, directly or indirectly, in violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 or the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, each as may be amended, or similar law of any other relevant jurisdiction, or the rules or regulations thereunder.


(oo)    The operations of the Company and its subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements and the money laundering statutes and the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”) and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.

(pp)    Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, agent, employee or affiliate of the Company or any of its subsidiaries (i) is, or is controlled or 50% or more owned in the aggregate by or is acting on behalf of, one or more individuals or entities that are currently the subject of any sanctions administered or enforced by the United States (including any administered or enforced by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury, the U.S. Department of State or the Bureau of Industry and Security of the U.S. Department of Commerce), the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, a member state of the European Union (including sanctions administered or enforced by Her Majesty’s Treasury of the United Kingdom) or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions” and such persons, “Sanctioned Persons” and each such person, a “Sanctioned Person”), (ii) is located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is, or whose government is, the subject of Sanctions that broadly prohibit dealings with that country or territory, including without limitation, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Syria, and the Crimea region of Ukraine (collectively, “Sanctioned Countries” and each, a “Sanctioned Country”) or (iii) will, directly or indirectly, use the proceeds of this offering, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other individual or entity in any manner that could result in a violation of any Sanctions by, or could result in the imposition of Sanctions against, any individual or entity (including any individual or entity participating in the offering, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise).

(qq)    Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has engaged in any dealings or transactions with or for the benefit of a Sanctioned Person, or with or in a Sanctioned Country, in the preceding five years, nor does the Company or any of its subsidiaries have any plans to engage in dealings or transactions with or for the benefit of a Sanctioned Person, or with or in a Sanctioned Country.

(rr)    The Company and its subsidiaries’ information technology assets and equipment, computers, systems, networks, hardware, software, websites, applications, and databases (collectively, “IT Systems”) are adequate for, and operate and perform in all material respects as required in connection with the operation of the business of the Company and its subsidiaries as currently conducted, free and clear of all material bugs, errors, defects, Trojan horses, time bombs, malware and other corruptants. The Company and its subsidiaries have implemented and maintained commercially reasonable controls, policies, procedures, and safeguards to maintain and protect their material confidential information and the integrity, continuous operation, redundancy and security of all IT Systems and data (including all personal, personally identifiable, sensitive, confidential or


regulated data (“Personal Data”)) used in connection with their businesses, and there have been no breaches, violations, outages or unauthorized uses of or accesses to same, except for those that have been remedied without material cost or liability or the duty to notify any other person, nor any incidents under internal review or investigations relating to the same. The Company and its subsidiaries are presently in material compliance with all applicable laws or statutes and all judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, internal policies and contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Personal Data and to the protection of such IT Systems and Personal Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification.

(ss)    The subsidiaries listed on Exhibit 21.2, as incorporated by reference into the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, are the only significant subsidiaries of the Company as defined by Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X.

(tt)    Except as described in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, the Company and its subsidiaries own, possess, license or have other rights to use all patents, patent applications, trade and service marks, trade and service mark registrations, trade names, copyrights, licenses, inventions, trade secrets, technology, know-how and other intellectual property (collectively, the “Intellectual Property”) necessary for the conduct of the Company’s business in all material respects as now conducted or as proposed in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus to be conducted. Except as set forth in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, (a) there are no rights of third parties to any such Intellectual Property, including no liens, security interests, or other encumbrances; (b) to the Company’s knowledge, there is no infringement by third parties of any such Intellectual Property having or expected to have a Material Adverse Effect on Company’s ability to conduct its business, as presently conducted or as proposed in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus to be conducted; (c) there is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others challenging the Company’s rights in or to any such Intellectual Property, and, except as would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, the Company is aware of no factual basis for any such claim; (d) such Intellectual Property has not been adjudged by a court of competent jurisdiction invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part; (e) there is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others challenging the validity or scope of any such Intellectual Property, including interferences, oppositions, reexaminations, or government proceedings, and, except as would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, the Company is aware of no factual basis for any such claim; (f) there is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others that (i) the Company infringes, misappropriates, or otherwise violates any patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret or other proprietary rights of others or (ii) the Company would, upon the commercialization of any product or service set forth in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, infringe, misappropriate, or otherwise violate any patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret or other proprietary rights of others and, except as would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, the Company is aware of no factual basis for any such claim; (g) to the Company’s knowledge, no employee of the Company is in or has been in violation of any term of any employment contract, patent disclosure agreement, invention assignment agreement, non-


competition agreement, non-solicitation agreement, nondisclosure agreement or any restrictive covenant to or with a former employer where the basis of such violation relates to such employee’s employment with the Company or actions undertaken by the employee in his or her capacity as an employee with the Company; (h) to the Company’s knowledge, there is no patent or published patent application in the U.S. or other jurisdiction which contains valid claims that dominate any Intellectual Property described in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus as being owned by or licensed to the Company or that would form the basis for an interference with the issued or pending claims of any such Intellectual Property; (i) the Company is not aware of any prior art that may render any patent held by the Company invalid or any patent application held by the Company unpatentable; and (j) the Company has complied with United State Patent and Trademark Office regulations in regard to the duty of good faith and candor pursuant to U.S. patent law (including 37 C.F.R. 1.56) and counterparts in other jurisdictions. The Company has complied in all material respects with all license agreements to which it is a party relating to the Intellectual Property and has not received any asserted or threatened claim of material breach of any of the same.

(uu)    Except as described in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, as applicable, the Company (i) is and at all times has been in compliance with all statutes, rules and regulations applicable to the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, marketing, advertising, labeling, promotion, sale, offer for sale, storage, import, export or disposal of any product manufactured or distributed by the Company, including, without limitation, the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. § 301 et seq.), the federal Anti-kickback Statute (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(b)), the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009, and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, as amended by the Health Care and Education Affordability Reconciliation Act of 2010, the regulations promulgated pursuant to such laws, and any successor government programs, and comparable state laws, regulations relating to Good Clinical Practices and Good Laboratory Practices and all other local, state, federal, national, and foreign laws, and final administrative guidance relating to the regulation of the Company (collectively, the “Applicable Laws”), except for such non-compliance as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect; (ii) has not received any written notice from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority or third party alleging or asserting non-compliance with any Applicable Laws or any licenses, exemptions, certificates, approvals, clearances, authorizations, permits, registrations and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such Applicable Laws (“Authorizations”), except for such non-compliance as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect; (iii) possesses all Authorizations and such Authorizations are valid and in full force and effect and are not in violation of any term of any such Authorizations, except for such violations as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect; (iv) has not received written notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority or third party alleging that any product operation or activity is in violation of any Applicable Laws or Authorizations nor, to the Company’s knowledge, is any such claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action


threatened; (v) has not received written notice that any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority has taken, is taking or intends to take action to materially limit, suspend, materially modify or revoke any Authorizations nor, to the Company’s knowledge, is any such limitation, suspension, modification or revocation threatened; (vi) has filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Applicable Laws or Authorizations and that all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were complete and accurate on the date filed in all material respects (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission); and (vii) is not a party to any corporate integrity agreements, monitoring agreements, consent decrees, settlement orders, or similar agreements with or imposed by any governmental or regulatory authority. Additionally, neither the Company nor its employees, officers or directors has been excluded, suspended or debarred from participation in any U.S. federal health care program or human clinical research or, to the knowledge of the Company, is subject to a governmental inquiry, investigation, proceeding, or other similar action that would reasonably be expected to result in debarment, suspension, or exclusion.

(vv)    The clinical trials and preclinical studies conducted by or on behalf of or sponsored by the Company, or in which the Company has participated, that are described in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus or the results of which are referred to in Disclosure Package and the Prospectus and are intended to be submitted to Regulatory Authorities as a basis for product approval, were and, if still pending, are being conducted in all material respects in accordance with standard medical and scientific research procedures and all applicable statutes, rules and regulations of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”) and comparable drug regulatory agencies outside of the United States to which it is subject (collectively, the “Regulatory Authorities”), and current Good Clinical Practices and Good Laboratory Practices; the descriptions in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus of the results of such studies and trials are accurate and complete in all material respects and fairly present the data derived from such trials; the Company has no knowledge of any other trials the results of which are inconsistent with or otherwise call into question the results described or referred to in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus; the Company has operated and is currently in compliance in all material respects with all applicable statutes, rules and regulations of the Regulatory Authorities; the Company has not received any written notices, correspondence or other communication from the Regulatory Authorities or any other governmental agency which could lead to the termination or suspension of any clinical trials or preclinical studies that are described in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus or the results of which are referred to in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, and, to the Company’s knowledge, there are no reasonable grounds for same.

(ww)    The Company possesses all material licenses, certificates, permits and other authorizations (collectively, “Permits”) issued by, and has made all declarations and filings with, the applicable U.S. federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory authorities that are necessary for the ownership or lease of its properties or the conduct of its business as described in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, or to permit all clinical trials and nonclinical studies and trials conducted by or on behalf of the Company,


including, without limitation, all necessary FDA and applicable foreign regulatory agency approvals; the Company is not in violation of, or in default under, any such Permit, except for such violation or default as would not have a Material Adverse Effect; and the Company has not received notice of any revocation, suspension or modification of any such Permit and does not have any reason to believe that any such Permit will not be renewed in the ordinary course. The Company has not received any FDA Form 483, written notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence or written notice from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority alleging or asserting non-compliance with (A) any Applicable Laws or (B) any Permits required by any such Applicable Laws.

(xx)    To the Company’s knowledge, the manufacturing facilities and operations of its suppliers are operated in compliance in all material respects with all applicable statutes, rules, regulations and policies of the Regulatory Authorities.

(yy)    None of the Company’s product candidates have received marketing approval from any Regulatory Authority.

(zz)    Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries nor any of its or their properties or assets has any immunity from the jurisdiction of any court or from any legal process (whether through service or notice, attachment prior to judgment, attachment in aid of execution or otherwise) under the laws of the State of New York.

(aaa)    The statistical and market-related data included in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus are based on or derived from sources which the Company reasonably and in good faith believes are reliable and accurate in all material respects.

(bbb)    With respect to the stock options (the “Stock Options”) granted pursuant to the stock-based compensation plans of the Company and its subsidiaries (the “Company Stock Plans”), (i) each Stock Option intended to qualify as an “incentive stock option” under Section 422 of the Code so qualifies, (ii) each grant of a Stock Option was duly authorized no later than the date on which the grant of such Stock Option was by its terms to be effective by all necessary corporate action, including, as applicable, approval by the board of directors of the Company (or a duly constituted and authorized committee thereof) and any required stockholder approval by the necessary number of votes or written consents, and the award agreement governing such grant (if any) was duly executed and delivered by each party thereto, (iii) each such grant was made in accordance with the terms of the Company Stock Plans and all other applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements, and (iv) each such grant was properly accounted for in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States in the financial statements (including the related notes) of the Company.

Any certificate signed by any officer of the Company and delivered to the Manager or counsel for the Manager in connection with this Agreement or any Terms Agreement shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company, as to matters covered thereby, to the Manager.


The Company acknowledges that the Manager and, for purposes of the opinions to be delivered pursuant to Section 4 and Section 6 hereof, each counsel to the Company and counsel to the Manager, will rely upon the accuracy and truthfulness of the foregoing representations and hereby consents to such reliance.

3.    Sale and Delivery of Shares.

(a)    Subject to the terms and conditions and in reliance upon the representations and warranties herein set forth, the Company agrees to issue and sell Shares from time to time through the Manager, acting as sales agent, and the Manager agrees to use its reasonable efforts to sell, as sales agent for the Company, the Shares on the following terms.

(i)    Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell any Shares hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify the Manager by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) (a “Placement Notice”) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires such Shares to be sold, which shall at a minimum include the number of Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Shares that may be sold in any Trading Day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made, a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters necessary is attached hereto as Schedule 1. Subject to the terms and conditions hereof, the Manager shall use its reasonable efforts to sell all of the Shares subject to a Placement Notice in the time frame specified therein.

(ii)    The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 2 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from the Manager set forth on Schedule 2, as such Schedule 2 may be amended from time to time. The Placement Notice shall be effective upon receipt by the Manager unless and until (i) the entire amount of the Shares to be sold under the Placement Notice have been sold, (ii) the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice for any reason in its sole discretion, (iii) the Company issues a subsequent Placement Notice with parameters superseding those on the earlier dated Placement Notice or (iv) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 8. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor the Manager will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to the Manager, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein.

(iii)    The Company acknowledges and agrees that (A) there can be no assurance that the Manager will be successful in selling the Shares, (B) the Manager will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Shares for any reason other than a failure by the Manager to use its reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations to sell such Shares as required under this Agreement, and (C) the Manager shall be under no obligation to purchase Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise specifically agreed by the Manager and the Company.


(iv)    The Company shall not authorize the issuance and sale of, and the Manager shall not be obligated to use its reasonable efforts to sell, any Share at a price lower than the minimum price therefor designated from time to time by the Company’s Board of Directors (the “Board”), or a duly authorized committee thereof, and notified to the Manager in writing in the Placement Notice. The Company or the Manager may, upon notice to the other party hereto by telephone (confirmed promptly by electronic mail), suspend the offering of the Shares for any reason and at any time; provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair the parties’ respective obligations with respect to the Shares sold hereunder prior to the giving of such notice.

(v)    The Manager hereby covenants and agrees not to make any sales of the Shares on behalf of the Company, pursuant to this Section 3(a), other than (A) by means of ordinary brokers’ transactions between members of the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC that qualify for delivery of a Prospectus to the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC in accordance with Rule 153 (such transactions are hereinafter referred to as “Continuous Offerings”) and (B) such other sales of the Shares on behalf of the Company in its capacity as agent of the Company as shall be agreed by the Company and the Manager pursuant to a Terms Agreement.

(vi)    The compensation to the Manager for sales of the Shares with respect to which the Manager acts as sales agent under this Agreement shall be up to 3.0% of the gross sales price of the Shares sold pursuant to this Section 3(a) and payable as described in the succeeding subsection (viii) below. The foregoing rate of compensation shall not apply when the Manager acts as principal, in which case the Company may sell Shares to the Manager as principal at a price agreed upon at the relevant Applicable Time pursuant to a Terms Agreement. The remaining proceeds, after further deduction for any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales (the “Transaction Fees”), shall constitute the net proceeds to the Company for such Shares (the “Net Proceeds”).

(vii)    The Manager shall provide written confirmation (which may be by electronic mail) to the Company following the close of trading on Nasdaq each day on which the Shares are sold under this Section 3(a) setting forth the number of the Shares sold on such day, the aggregate gross sales proceeds and the Net Proceeds to the Company, and the compensation payable by the Company to the Manager with respect to such sales. Such compensation shall be set forth and invoiced in periodic statements from the Manager to the Company, with payment to be made by the Company promptly after its receipt thereof.

(viii)    Settlement for sales of the Shares pursuant to this Section 3(a) will occur on the second business day following the date on which such sales are made (each such day, a “Settlement Date”). On each Settlement Date, the Shares sold


through the Manager for settlement on such date shall be issued and delivered by the Company to the Manager against payment of the aggregate gross sales proceeds less any Transaction Fees for the sale of such Shares. Settlement for all such Shares shall be effected by free delivery of the Shares to the Manager’s account at The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) in return for payments in same day funds delivered to the account designated by the Company. If the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable) shall default on its obligation to deliver the Shares on any Settlement Date, the Company shall (A) indemnify and hold the Manager harmless against any loss, claim or damage arising from or as a result of such default by the Company and (B) pay the Manager any commission to which it would otherwise be entitled absent such default. If the Manager breaches this Agreement by failing to deliver the aggregate gross sales proceeds less any Transaction Fees to the Company on any Settlement Date for the Shares delivered by the Company, the Manager will pay the Company interest based on the effective overnight federal funds rate on such unpaid amount less any compensation due to the Manager.

(ix)    At each Applicable Time and Representation Date (as defined in Section 4(k)), the Company shall be deemed to have affirmed each representation and warranty contained in this Agreement as if such representation and warranty were made as of such date, modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended as of such date. Any obligation of the Manager to use its reasonable efforts to sell the Shares on behalf of the Company shall be subject to the continuing accuracy of the representations and warranties of the Company herein, to the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder and to the continuing satisfaction of the additional conditions specified in Section 6 of this Agreement.

(b)    If the Company wishes to issue and sell the Shares pursuant to this Agreement to the Manager as principal, it will propose the terms of such sale to the Manager. If the Manager, acting as principal, wishes to accept such proposed terms (which it may decline to do for any reason in its sole discretion) or, following discussions with the Company wishes to accept amended terms, the Manager and the Company will enter into a Terms Agreement setting forth the terms of such Placement. The terms set forth in a Terms Agreement will not be binding on the Company or the Manager unless and until the Company and the Manager have each executed such Terms Agreement accepting all of the terms of such Terms Agreement. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Terms Agreement, the terms of such Terms Agreement will control.

(c)    Each sale of the Shares to the Manager as principal shall be made in accordance with the terms of this Agreement and, if applicable, a Terms Agreement, which will provide for the sale of such Shares to, and the purchase thereof by, the Manager. A Terms Agreement may also specify certain provisions relating to the reoffering of such Shares by the Manager. The commitment of the Manager to purchase the Shares pursuant to any Terms Agreement shall be deemed to have been made on the basis of the representations and warranties of the Company herein contained and shall be subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth. Each Terms Agreement shall specify the number of the Shares


to be purchased by the Manager pursuant thereto, the price to be paid to the Company for such Shares, any provisions relating to rights of, and default by, underwriters acting together with the Manager in the reoffering of the Shares, and the time and date (each such time and date being referred to herein as a “Time of Delivery”) and place of delivery of and payment for such Shares. Such Terms Agreement shall also specify any requirements for opinions of counsel, accountants’ letters and officers’ certificates pursuant to Section 6 of this Agreement and any other information or documents required by the Manager.

(d)    Under no circumstances shall the number and aggregate gross sales price of the Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement and any Terms Agreement exceed (i) the aggregate amount set forth in Section 1, (ii) the number of shares of the Common Stock available for issuance under the currently effective Registration Statement or (iii) the number and aggregate amount of the Shares authorized from time to time to be issued and sold under this Agreement by the Board, or a duly authorized committee thereof, and notified to the Manager in writing in the Placement Notice.

(e)    If either party has reason to believe that the exemptive provisions set forth in Rule 101(c)(1) of Regulation M under the Exchange Act are not satisfied with respect to the Shares, it shall promptly notify the other party and sales of the Shares under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement shall be suspended until that or other exemptive provisions have been satisfied in the judgment of each party.

(f)    Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement the Company shall not request the sale of any Shares that would be sold, and the Manager shall not be obligated to sell, during any period in which the Company is, or would reasonably be deemed to be, in possession of material non-public information.

4.    Agreements. The Company agrees with the Manager that:

(a)    During any period when the delivery of a prospectus relating to the Shares is required (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172) to be delivered under the Securities Act, the Company will not file any amendment of the Registration Statement or supplement to the Prospectus (other than an amendment or supplement relating to an offering of the Company’s securities which is unrelated to the offering of Shares hereunder or any amendment pursuant to Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act deemed effected pursuant to the filing of an Annual Report on Form 10-K by the Company) unless the Company has furnished to the Manager a copy for its review prior to filing and will not file any such proposed amendment or supplement to which the Manager reasonably objects. The Company will properly complete the Prospectus, in a form approved by the Manager, and file such Prospectus, with the Commission and will cause any supplement to the Prospectus to be properly completed, in a form approved by the Manager, and will file such supplement with the Commission pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) within the time period prescribed thereby and will provide evidence satisfactory to the Manager of such timely filing. The Company will promptly advise the Manager (i) when the Prospectus, and any supplement thereto, shall have been filed (if required) with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b), (ii) when, during any period when the delivery of a prospectus (whether physically or


through compliance with Rule 172 or any similar rule) is required under the Securities Act in connection with the offering or sale of the Shares, any amendment to the Registration Statement shall have been filed or become effective, (iii) of any request by the Commission or its staff for any amendment of the Registration Statement, or for any supplement to the Prospectus or for any additional information, (iv) of the issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or of any notice objecting to its use or the institution or threatening of any proceeding for that purpose and (v) of the receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification of the Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the institution or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Company shall not be obligated to provide notice of or furnish copies of any report or statement filed with the Commission to the extent it is available on the Commission’s Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval System. The Company will use its best efforts to prevent the issuance of any such stop order or the occurrence of any such suspension or objection to the use of the Registration Statement and, upon such issuance, occurrence or notice of objection, to obtain as soon as possible the withdrawal of such stop order or relief from such occurrence or objection, including, if necessary, by filing an amendment to the Registration Statement or a new registration statement and using its best efforts to have such amendment or new registration statement declared effective as soon as practicable.

(b)    If, at any time on or after an Applicable Time but prior to the related Settlement Date or Time of Delivery, any event occurs as a result of which the Disclosure Package would include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein in the light of the circumstances under which they were made or the circumstances then prevailing not misleading, the Company will (i) notify promptly the Manager so that any use of the Disclosure Package may cease until it is amended or supplemented; (ii) amend or supplement the Disclosure Package to correct such statement or omission; and (iii) supply any amendment or supplement to the Manager in such quantities as the Manager may reasonably request.

(c)    During any period when the delivery of a prospectus relating to the Shares is required (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172) to be delivered under the Securities Act, any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then supplemented would include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein in the light of the circumstances under which they were made at such time not misleading, or if it shall be necessary to amend the Registration Statement, file a new registration statement or supplement the Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or the respective rules thereunder, including in connection with use or delivery of the Prospectus, the Company promptly will (i) notify the Manager of any such event, (ii) prepare and file with the Commission, subject to the second sentence of paragraph (a) of this Section 4, an amendment or supplement or new registration statement which will correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance, (iii) use its best efforts to have any amendment to the Registration Statement or new registration statement declared effective as soon as practicable in order to avoid any disruption in use of the Prospectus and (iv) supply any supplemented Prospectus to the Manager in such quantities as the Manager may reasonably request. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in the alternative the Company can suspend or terminate the Placement Notice upon written notice to the Manager and delay the filing of any amendment or supplement, if in the judgment of the Company, it is in the best interest of the Company.


(d)    As soon as practicable, the Company will make generally available to its security holders and to the Manager an earnings statement or statements of the Company and its subsidiaries which will satisfy the provisions of Section 11(a) of the Securities Act and Rule 158.

(e)    The Company will furnish to the Manager and counsel for the Manager, without charge, signed copies of the Registration Statement (including exhibits thereto) and, so long as delivery of a prospectus by the Manager or dealer may be required by the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172), as many copies of the Prospectus and each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus and any supplement thereto as the Manager may reasonably request. The Company will pay the expenses of printing or other production of all documents relating to the offering.

(f)    The Company will arrange, if necessary, for the qualification of the Shares for sale under the laws of such jurisdictions as the Manager may reasonably designate and will maintain such qualifications in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Shares; provided that in no event shall the Company be obligated to qualify to do business in any jurisdiction where it is not now so qualified or to take any action that would subject it to service of process in suits, other than those arising out of the offering or sale of the Shares, in any jurisdiction where it is not now so subject.

(g)    The Company agrees that, unless it has or shall have obtained the prior written consent of the Manager, and the Manager agrees with the Company that, unless it has or shall have obtained, as the case may be, the prior written consent of the Company, it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Shares that would constitute an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or that would otherwise constitute a “free writing prospectus” (as defined in Rule 405) required to be filed by the Company with the Commission or retained by the Company under Rule 433; provided that the prior written consent of the parties hereto shall be deemed to have been given in respect of the Free Writing Prospectuses included in Schedule 3 hereto. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Manager or the Company is hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company agrees that (i) it has treated and will treat, as the case may be, each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus and (ii) it has complied and will comply, as the case may be, with the requirements of Rules 164 and 433 applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, including in respect of timely filing with the Commission, legending and record keeping.

(h)    During the pendency of any Placement Notice, the Company will not offer, sell, contract to sell, pledge, or otherwise dispose of, or file a registration statement with the Commission in respect of (other than any Registration Statement on Form S-8 or Form S-4, or any successors to such forms), any other shares of Common Stock or any securities convertible into, or exercisable, or exchangeable for, shares of Common Stock, or publicly


announce an intention to effect any such transaction, without giving the Manager at least five Trading Days’ prior written notice specifying the nature of the proposed transaction and the date of such proposed transaction and; provided, however, that the Company may, without giving such notice, (i) issue and sell Common Stock pursuant to this Agreement or any Terms Agreement; (ii) issue, grant or sell Common Stock or options or other equity awards pursuant to any equity incentive plan, inducement plan, any employee stock purchase plan, stock ownership plan or dividend reinvestment plan of the Company in effect at the Execution Time or approved by the Board thereafter; (iii) issue or sell Common Stock pursuant to any dividend reinvestment plan that the Company may adopt from time to time provided the implementation of such is disclosed to the Manager in advance; (iv) issue Common Stock upon the conversion of securities or the exercise of warrants; (v) issue Common Stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock in satisfaction of contractual payment obligations described in Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, including the issuance of Common Stock as repayment of indebtedness of the Company in accordance with the terms thereof; (vi) issue Common Stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock in connection with an acquisition, merger or sale or purchase of assets; and (vii) issue Common Stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock offered and sold in connection with any strategic investment (including any joint venture, strategic alliance or partnership).

(i)    The Company will not (i) take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that would constitute or that might reasonably be expected to cause or result in, under the Exchange Act or otherwise, stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares or (ii) sell, bid for, purchase Common Stock in violation of Regulation M under the Exchange Act or pay any person (other than as contemplated by this Agreement or any Terms Agreement) any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Shares; provided, however, that the Company may bid for and purchase shares of its common stock in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act.

(j)    The Company will, simultaneously upon delivering to the Manager a Placement Notice or, at any time during the pendency of a Placement Notice, advise the Manager promptly after it shall have received notice or obtain knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter and other document provided to the Manager pursuant to Section 6 herein.

(k)    On or prior to the first delivery of a Placement Notice under this Agreement and each time thereafter during the term of this Agreement the Company (i) amends or supplements the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (other than a prospectus supplement filed in accordance with Section 4(p) of this Agreement or a prospectus supplement relating solely to the offering of securities other than the Shares) by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of document(s) by reference to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, (ii) files an Annual Report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act, (iii) files a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act, (iv) files a Current Report on Form 8-K under the Exchange Act containing amended financial information (other than an earnings release or other information “furnished” pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K) under the


Exchange Act and (v) delivers Shares to the Manager as principal at the Time of Delivery pursuant to a Terms Agreement (the date on which the Company first delivers a Placement Notice and each such date referred to in (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v) above, a “Representation Date”), the Company shall furnish or cause to be furnished to the Manager forthwith a certificate dated and delivered the date of such Representation Date, in form reasonably satisfactory to the Manager with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 4(k) within two Trading Days of any Representation Date if requested by the Manager; provided, however, in the case of clause (iv) above a certificate will only be required if (1) a Placement Notice is pending and (2) the Manager reasonably determines that the information contained in such Form 8-K is material to a holder of Common Stock. The requirement to deliver a certificate under this Section 4(k) shall be automatically waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending or no Terms Agreement is in effect (a “Waiver”), which Waiver, in each case, shall not apply the next time the Company delivers its next Placement Notice or enters into a Terms Agreement; provided, however, that such Waiver shall not apply for any Representation Date on which the Company files its Annual Report on Form 10-K. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Shares following a Representation Date when the Company relied on a Waiver and did not provide the Manager with a certificate under this Section 4(k), then before the Company delivers the Placement Notice or the Manager sells any Shares, the Company shall provide the Manager with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 4(k), dated the date of the Placement Notice.

(l)    On or prior to the first delivery of a Placement Notice under this Agreement and within two Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate attached hereto as Exhibit 4(k) for which no Waiver is applicable, the Company shall furnish or cause to be furnished forthwith to the Manager and to counsel to the Manager:

(i)    a written opinion of Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP, counsel to the Company (“Company Counsel”), or other counsel satisfactory to the Manager, dated and delivered on the date that the opinion is required to be delivered, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Manager, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Manager and its counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented;

(ii)    a written opinion of Choate, Hall & Stuart LLP, intellectual property counsel to the Company, or other counsel satisfactory to the Manager, dated and delivered on the date that the opinion is required to be delivered, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Manager, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Manager and its counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented;

provided, however, that in lieu of such opinions for subsequent Representation Dates, in each case, counsel may furnish the Manager with a letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to


the effect that the Manager may rely on a prior opinion delivered under this Section 4(l)(i) or (ii), as applicable, to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Representation Date). Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Shares following a Representation Date when the Company relied on such waiver/exemption and did not provide the Manager with the opinions under this Section 4(l), then before the Company delivers the Placement Notice or the Manager sells any Shares, the Manager may, in its discretion, require the Company to provide the Manager with some or all of the opinions under this Section 4(l), substantially similar to the forms previously provided to the Manager, each dated the date of the Placement Notice; provided, the Company shall be required to furnish to the Manager no more than one of each such opinion hereunder per calendar quarter.

(m)    On or prior to the first delivery of a Placement Notice under this Agreement and within two Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 4(k) for which no Waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause the Accountants or other independent accountants reasonably satisfactory to the Manager forthwith, to furnish the Manager a letter (the “Comfort Letter) dated the date that the letter is delivered, in form reasonably satisfactory to the Manager (i) confirming that they are independent accountants within the meaning of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act and the respective applicable rules and regulations adopted by the Commission thereunder, (ii) that they have performed a review of any unaudited interim financial information of the Company included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus in accordance with Statement on Auditing Standards No. 100 (the first such letter, the “Initial Comfort Letter”) and (iii) updating the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter; provided that the Company shall be required to furnish to the Manager no more than one Comfort Letter hereunder per calendar quarter

(n)    On or prior to the first delivery of a Placement Notice under this Agreement and at each Representation Date on which an opinion of counsel is requested by the Manager pursuant to Section 6(d), the Manager may request that the Company conduct a due diligence session, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Manager. The Company shall cooperate timely with any reasonable due diligence request from or review conducted by the Manager or its agents from time to time in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, including, without limitation, providing information and available documents and access to appropriate senior corporate officers during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices as the Manager may reasonably request.

(o)    The Company acknowledges and agrees that the Manager may trade in the Common Stock for the Manager’s own account and for the account of its clients at the same time as sales of the Shares occur pursuant to this Agreement or pursuant to a Terms Agreement.


(p)    The Company will either (i) in its Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, as applicable, or (ii) in a prospectus supplement filed with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, disclose the number of Shares sold through the Manager under this Agreement, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation paid by the Company to the Manager with respect to sales of Shares pursuant to this Agreement during the relevant quarter.

(q)    Each execution and delivery by the Company of a Terms Agreement, shall be deemed to be an affirmation to the Manager that the representations and warranties of the Company contained in or made pursuant to this Agreement are true and correct as of the date of such Terms Agreement as though made at and as of such date, and an undertaking that such representations and warranties will be true and correct as of the Time of Delivery relating to such sale, as though made at and as of such date (except that such representations and warranties shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented relating to such Shares).

(r)    The Company shall ensure that there are at all times sufficient shares of Common Stock to provide for the issuance, free of any preemptive rights, out of its authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock or shares of Common Stock held in treasury, of the maximum aggregate number of Shares authorized for issuance by the Board pursuant to the terms of this Agreement. The Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Shares to be listed for trading on Nasdaq and to maintain such listing.

(s)    During any period when the delivery of a prospectus relating to the Shares is required (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172) to be delivered under the Securities Act, the Company will file all documents required to be filed with the Commission pursuant to the Exchange Act within the time periods required by the Exchange Act and the regulations thereunder.

(t)    The Company shall cooperate with Manager and use its reasonable efforts to permit the Shares to be eligible for clearance and settlement through the facilities of DTC.

(u)    The Company will apply the Net Proceeds from the sale of the Shares in the manner set forth in the Prospectus.

5.    Payment of Expenses. The Company agrees to pay the costs and expenses incident to the performance of its obligations under this Agreement, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereby are consummated, including without limitation: (i) the preparation, printing or reproduction and filing with the Commission of the Registration Statement (including financial statements and exhibits thereto), the Prospectus and each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, and each amendment or supplement to any of them; (ii) the printing (or reproduction) and delivery (including postage, air freight charges and charges for counting and packaging) of such copies of


the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, and each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, and all amendments or supplements to any of them, as may, in each case, be reasonably requested for use in connection with the offering and sale of the Shares; (iii) the preparation, printing, authentication, issuance and delivery of certificates for the Shares, including any stamp or transfer taxes in connection with the original issuance and sale of the Shares; (iv) the printing (or reproduction) and delivery of this Agreement, any blue sky memorandum and all other agreements or documents printed (or reproduced) and delivered in connection with the offering of the Shares; (v) the registration of the Shares under the Exchange Act and the listing of the Shares on Nasdaq; (vi) any registration or qualification of the Shares for offer and sale under the securities or blue sky laws of the several states (including filing fees and the reasonable fees and expenses of counsel for the Manager relating to such registration and qualification); (vii) any filings required to be made with FINRA, including filing fees, as well as and the reasonable fees and expenses of counsel for the Manager relating to such filings; (viii) the transportation and other expenses incurred by or on behalf of Company representatives in connection with presentations to prospective purchasers of the Shares; (ix) the fees and expenses of the Company’s accountants and the fees and expenses of counsel (including local and special counsel) for the Company; (x) the reasonable documented out-of-pocket expenses of the Manager, including the reasonable fees, disbursements and expenses of counsel for the Manager in connection with this Agreement and the Registration Statement and ongoing services in connection with the transactions contemplated hereunder, including the fees set forth in clause (vii) above, in an aggregate amount not to exceed $50,000; and (xi) all other costs and expenses incident to the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder.

6.    Conditions to the Obligations of the Manager. The obligations of the Manager under this Agreement with respect to a Placement and any Terms Agreement shall be subject to (i) the accuracy of the representations and warranties on the part of the Company contained herein as of the Execution Time, each Representation Date, and as of each Applicable Time and Time of Delivery, (ii) to the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder and (iii) the following additional conditions:

(a)    Any supplement to the Prospectus required by Rule 424 to be filed with the Commission have been filed in the manner and within the time period required by Rule 424(b) with respect to any sale of Shares; any other material required to be filed by the Company pursuant to Rule 433(d) under the Securities Act, shall have been filed with the Commission within the applicable time periods prescribed for such filings by Rule 433; and no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any notice objecting to its use shall have been issued and no proceedings for that purpose shall have been instituted or threatened.

(b)    The Company shall have requested and caused the Company Counsel, to furnish to the Manager, on the dates specified in Section 4(l)(i) of this Agreement, its opinion, dated as of such date and addressed to the Manager, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Manager.

(c)    The Company shall have requested and caused Choate, Hall & Stuart LLP, intellectual property counsel for the Company, to furnish to the Manager, on the dates specified in Section 4(l)(ii) of this Agreement, its opinion, dated as of such date and addressed to the Manager, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Manager.


(d)    The Manager shall have received from Cooley LLP, counsel for the Manager, on each date which the delivery of the Company Counsel legal opinion is required pursuant to Section 4(l)(i) of this Agreement, such opinion or opinions, dated as of such date and addressed to the Manager, with respect to the issuance and sale of the Shares, the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package, the Prospectus (together with any supplement thereto) and other related matters as the Manager may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they request for the purpose of enabling them to pass upon such matters.

(e)    The Company shall have furnished or caused to be furnished to the Manager, on the dates specified in Section 4(k) of this Agreement, a certificate of the Company, signed by the Chairman of the Board, the President, the Chief Executive Officer or the principal financial or principal accounting officer of the Company, dated as of such date, to the effect that the signer of such certificate has carefully examined the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus and any supplements or amendments thereto and this Agreement and that:

(i)    the representations and warranties of the Company in this Agreement are true and correct on and as of such date with the same effect as if made on such date and the Company has complied with all the agreements and satisfied all the conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied at or prior to such date;

(ii)    no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any notice objecting to its use has been issued and no proceedings for that purpose have been instituted or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened; and

(iii)    since the date of the most recent financial statements included in the Disclosure Package, there has been no Material Adverse Effect, except as set forth in or contemplated in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus.

(f)    The Company shall have requested and caused the Accountants to have furnished to the Manager, on every date specified in Section 4(m) hereof, the Comfort Letter that is required to be delivered pursuant to Section 4(m) hereof (which may refer to letters previously delivered to the Manager), dated as of such date, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Manager,

(g)    Since the respective dates as of which information is disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, except as otherwise stated therein, there shall not have been (i) any change or decrease in financial statement items specified in the letter or letters referred to in paragraph (f) of this Section 6 or (ii) any change, or any development involving a prospective change, in or affecting the condition (financial or otherwise), earnings, business or properties of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business, except as set forth or contemplated in the Disclosure Package, the effect of which is, in any case referred to in clause (i) or (ii) above, in the sole judgment of the Manager, so material and adverse as to make it impractical or inadvisable to market the Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus.


(h)    The Company shall have paid the required Commission filing fees relating to the Shares within the time period required by Rule 456(b)(1)(i) of the Securities Act without regard to the proviso therein and otherwise in accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r) of the Securities Act and, if applicable, shall have updated the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in accordance with Rule 456(b)(1)(ii) either in a post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement or on the cover page of a prospectus or prospectus supplement filed pursuant to Rule 424(b).

(i)    Between the Execution Time and the time of any sale of Shares through the Manager, there shall not have been any decrease in the rating of any of the Company’s debt securities by any “nationally recognized statistical rating organization” (as defined for purposes of Rule 436(g) under the Securities Act) or any notice given of any intended or potential decrease in any such rating or of a possible change in any such rating that does not indicate the direction of the possible change.

(j)    FINRA shall not have raised any objection with respect to the fairness and reasonableness of the terms and arrangements under this Agreement.

(k)    The Shares shall have been listed and admitted and authorized for trading on Nasdaq, and satisfactory evidence of such actions shall have been provided to the Manager.

(l)    Prior to each Settlement Date and Time of Delivery, as applicable, the Company shall have furnished to the Manager such further information, certificates and documents as the Manager may reasonably request.

If any of the conditions specified in this Section 6 shall not have been fulfilled when and as provided in this Agreement, or if any of the opinions and certificates mentioned above or elsewhere in this Agreement shall not be reasonably satisfactory in form and substance to the Manager and counsel for the Manager, this Agreement and all obligations of the Manager hereunder may be canceled at, or at any time prior to, any Settlement Date or Time of Delivery, as applicable, by the Manager. Notice of such cancellation shall be given to the Company in writing or by telephone or electronic mail and confirmed in writing.

The documents required to be delivered by this Section 6 shall be delivered at the office of Cooley LLP, counsel for the Manager, at 1114 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10036, on each such date as provided in this Agreement.

7.    Indemnification and Contribution.

(a)    The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Manager, the directors, officers, employees, affiliates and agents of the Manager and each person who controls the Manager within the meaning of either the Securities Act or the Exchange Act against any and all losses, claims, damages or liabilities, joint or several, to which they or any of them may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other U.S.


federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such losses, claims, damages or liabilities (or actions in respect thereof) arise out of or are based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the registration statement for the registration of the Shares as originally filed or in any amendment thereof or the Prospectus, or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, or in any amendment thereof or supplement thereto or arise out of or are based upon the omission or alleged omission to state therein a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading, and agrees to reimburse each such indemnified party, as incurred, for any documented legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by them in connection with investigating or defending any such loss, claim, damage, liability or action, provided, however, that the Company will not be liable in any such case to the extent that any such loss, claim, damage or liability arises out of or is based upon any such untrue statement or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission made therein in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Manager specifically for inclusion therein. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company may otherwise have. The Company acknowledges that the last two sentences of the first paragraph under the heading “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus and the name and contact information of the Manager in the Prospectus constitute the only information furnished in writing by or on behalf of the Manager for inclusion in the Prospectus or Issuer Free Writing Prospectus.

(b)    The Manager agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company, each of its directors, each of its officers who signs the Registration Statement, and each person who controls the Company within the meaning of either the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, to the same extent as the foregoing indemnity from the Company to the Manager, but only with reference to written information relating to the Manager furnished to the Company by or on behalf of the Manager specifically for inclusion in the documents referred to in the foregoing indemnity. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability which the Manager may otherwise have.

(c)    Promptly after receipt by an indemnified party under this Section 7 of notice of the commencement of any action, such indemnified party will, if a claim in respect thereof is to be made against the indemnifying party under this Section 7, notify the indemnifying party in writing of the commencement thereof; but the failure so to notify the indemnifying party (i) will not relieve it from liability under paragraph (a) or (b) above unless and to the extent it did not otherwise learn of such action and such failure results in the forfeiture by the indemnifying party of substantial rights and defenses and (ii) will not, in any event, relieve the indemnifying party from any obligations to any indemnified party other than the indemnification obligation provided in paragraph (a) or (b) above. The indemnifying party shall be entitled to appoint counsel of the indemnifying party’s choice at the indemnifying party’s expense to represent the indemnified party in any action for which indemnification is sought (in which case the indemnifying party shall not thereafter be responsible for the fees and expenses of any separate counsel retained by the indemnified party or parties except as set forth below); provided, however, that such counsel shall be reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party. Notwithstanding the indemnifying party’s election to appoint counsel to represent the indemnified party in an action, the indemnified party shall have the right to employ separate counsel (including


local counsel), and the indemnifying party shall bear the reasonable fees, costs and expenses of such separate counsel (which, if the Company is the indemnifying party, shall be limited to one such separate counsel for the Manager together with directors, officers, employees, affiliates, agents and all persons who control the Manager, within the meaning of either the Securities Act or the Exchange Act) if (i) the use of counsel chosen by the indemnifying party to represent the indemnified party would present such counsel with a conflict of interest, (ii) the actual or potential defendants in, or targets of, any such action include both the indemnified party and the indemnifying party and the indemnified party shall have reasonably concluded that there may be legal defenses available to it and/or other indemnified parties which are different from or additional to those available to the indemnifying party, (iii) the indemnifying party shall not have employed counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party to represent the indemnified party within a reasonable time after notice of the institution of such action or (iv) the indemnifying party shall authorize the indemnified party to employ separate counsel at the expense of the indemnifying party. An indemnifying party will not, without the prior written consent of the indemnified parties, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment with respect to any pending or threatened claim, action, suit or proceeding in respect of which indemnification or contribution may be sought hereunder (whether or not the indemnified parties are actual or potential parties to such claim or action) unless such settlement, compromise or consent: (i) includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party from all liability arising out of such claim, action, suit or proceeding and (ii) does not include an admission of fault.

(d)    In the event that the indemnity provided in paragraph (a), (b) or (c) of this Section 7 is unavailable to or insufficient to hold harmless an indemnified party for any reason, the Company and the Manager agree to contribute to the aggregate losses, claims, damages and liabilities (including legal or other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with investigating or defending the same) (collectively “Losses”) to which the Company and the Manager may be subject in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and by the Manager on the other from the offering of the Shares. If the allocation provided by the immediately preceding sentence is unavailable for any reason, the Company and the Manager severally shall contribute in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only such relative benefits but also the relative fault of the Company on the one hand and of the Manager on the other in connection with the statements or omissions which resulted in such Losses as well as any other relevant equitable considerations. Benefits received by the Company shall be deemed to be equal to the total net proceeds from the offering (before deducting expenses) received by it, and benefits received by the Manager shall be deemed to be equal to the total gross compensation received by the Manager (before deducting expenses) with respect to Shares purchased under this Agreement, in each case as determined by this Agreement or any applicable Terms Agreement. Relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether any untrue or any alleged untrue statement of a material fact or the omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information provided by the Company on the one hand or the Manager on the other, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such untrue statement or omission. The Company and the Manager agree that it would not be just and equitable if contribution were determined by pro rata


allocation or any other method of allocation which does not take account of the equitable considerations referred to above. Notwithstanding the provisions of this paragraph (d), in no event shall the Manager be required to contribute any amount in excess of the amount by which the total gross compensation received by the Manager (before deducting expenses) with respect to Shares purchased under this Agreement exceeds the amount of any damages that the Manager has otherwise been required to pay by reason of such untrue or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission. No person guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) shall be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 7, each person who controls the Manager within the meaning of either the Securities Act or the Exchange Act and each director, officer, employee, affiliate and agent of the Manager shall have the same rights to contribution as the Manager, and each person who controls the Company within the meaning of either the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, each officer of the Company who shall have signed the Registration Statement and each director of the Company shall have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the applicable terms and conditions of this paragraph (d).

8.    Termination.

(a)    The Company shall have the right, by giving written notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate the provisions of this Agreement relating to the solicitation of offers to purchase the Shares in its sole discretion at any time. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that (i) if Shares have been sold through the Manager for the Company, then Section 4(q) shall remain in full force and effect, (ii) with respect to any pending sale, through the Manager for the Company, the obligations of the Company, including in respect of compensation of the Manager, shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding the termination and (iii) the provisions of Sections 2, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12 and 14 of this Agreement shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(b)    The Manager shall have the right, by giving written notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate the provisions of this Agreement relating to the solicitation of offers to purchase the Shares in its sole discretion at any time. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Sections 2, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12 and 14 of this Agreement shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(c)    This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 8(a) or (b) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Sections 2, 5, 7 and 9 shall remain in full force and effect.

(d)    Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by the Manager or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date or Time of Delivery for any sale of the Shares, such sale shall settle in accordance with the provisions of Section 3(a)(viii) of this Agreement.


(e)    In the case of any purchase of Shares by the Manager pursuant to a Terms Agreement, the obligations of the Manager pursuant to such Terms Agreement shall be subject to termination, in the absolute discretion of the Manager, by notice given to the Company prior to the Time of Delivery relating to such Shares, if at any time prior to such delivery and payment (i) trading in the Company’s Common Stock shall have been suspended by the Commission or Nasdaq or trading in securities generally on the NYSE or Nasdaq shall have been suspended or limited or minimum prices shall have been established on either of such exchanges, (ii) a banking moratorium shall have been declared either by U.S. federal or New York State authorities or (iii) there shall have occurred any outbreak or escalation of hostilities, declaration by the United States of a national emergency or war, or other calamity or crisis the effect of which on financial markets is such as to make it, in the sole judgment of the Manager, impractical or inadvisable to proceed with the offering or delivery of the Shares as contemplated by the Prospectus (exclusive of any amendment or supplement thereto).

9.    Representations and Indemnities to Survive. The respective agreements, representations, warranties, indemnities and other statements of the Company or its officers and of the Manager set forth in or made pursuant to this Agreement will remain in full force and effect, regardless of any investigation made by the Manager or the Company or any of the officers, directors, employees, affiliates, agents or controlling persons referred to in Section 7 hereof, and will survive delivery of and payment for the Shares.

10.    Notices. All communications hereunder will be in writing and effective only on receipt, and, if sent to the Manager, will be mailed, delivered or telefaxed to the Citigroup Global Markets Inc. General Counsel (fax no.: (646) 291-1469) and confirmed to the General Counsel, Citigroup Global Markets Inc., at 388 Greenwich Street, New York, New York, 10013, Attention: General Counsel; or, if sent to the Company, will be mailed or delivered to and confirmed to it at 6400 Westwind Way, Suite A, Crestwood, KY 40014, attention of the Legal Department.

11.    Successors. This Agreement will inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the parties hereto and their respective successors and the officers, directors, employees, agents and controlling persons referred to in Section 8 hereof, and no other person will have any right or obligation hereunder.

12.    No Fiduciary Duty. The Company hereby acknowledges that (a) the purchase and sale of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement is an arm’s-length commercial transaction between the Company, on the one hand, and the Manager and any affiliate through which it may be acting, on the other, (b) the Manager is acting solely as sales agent and/or principal in connection with the purchase and sale of the Company’s securities and not as a fiduciary of the Company and (c) the Company’s engagement of the Manager in connection with the offering and the process leading up to the offering is as independent contractors and not in any other capacity. Furthermore, the Company agrees that it is solely responsible for making its own judgments in connection with the offering (irrespective of whether the Manager has advised or is currently advising the Company on related or other matters). The Company agrees that it will not claim that the Manager has rendered advisory services of any nature or respect, or owe an agency, fiduciary or similar duty to the Company, in connection with such transaction or the process leading thereto.


13.    Integration. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement supersede all prior agreements and understandings (whether written or oral) between the Company and the Manager with respect to the subject matter hereof.

14.    Applicable Law. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York applicable to contracts made and to be performed within the State of New York.

15.    Waiver of Jury Trial. The Company hereby irrevocably waives, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to this Agreement, any Terms Agreement or the transactions contemplated hereby or thereby.

16.    Counterparts. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement may be signed in one or more counterparts, each of which shall constitute an original and all of which together shall constitute one and the same agreement.

17.    Headings. The section headings used in this Agreement and any Terms Agreement are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

18.    Definitions. The terms that follow, when used in this Agreement and any Terms Agreement, shall have the meanings indicated.

Applicable Time” shall mean, with respect to any Shares, the time of sale of such Shares pursuant to this Agreement or any relevant Terms Agreement.

Business Day” shall mean any day other than a Saturday, a Sunday or a legal holiday or a day on which banking institutions or trust companies are authorized or obligated by law to close in New York City.

Commission” shall mean the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Disclosure Package” shall mean (i) the Prospectus, (ii) any prospectus supplement to the Prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act and relating to the Shares, (iii) any Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, identified in Schedule 3 hereto, (iv) the public offering price of Shares sold at the relevant Applicable Time and (v) any other Free Writing Prospectus that the parties hereto shall hereafter expressly agree in writing to treat as part of the Disclosure Package

Effective Date” shall mean each date and time that the Registration Statement, and any post-effective amendment or amendments thereto became or becomes effective.

Exchange Act” shall mean the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Execution Time” shall mean the date and time that this Agreement is executed and delivered by the parties hereto.


Free Writing Prospectus” shall mean a free writing prospectus, as defined in Rule 405.

Issuer Free Writing Prospectus” shall mean an issuer free writing prospectus, as defined in Rule 433.

Registration Statement” shall mean the registration statement referred to in Section 2(a) above, including exhibits and financial statements and any prospectus supplement relating to the Shares that is filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) and deemed part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B, as amended on each Effective Date and, in the event any post-effective amendment thereto becomes effective, shall also mean such registration statement as so amended.

Rule 153, Rule 158”, “Rule 163”, “Rule 164”, “Rule 172”, “Rule 405”, “Rule 415”, “Rule 424”, “Rule 430B” and “Rule 433” refer to such rules under the Securities Act.

Securities Act” shall mean the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Trading Day” means any day on which the Company’s Common Stock is purchased and sold on the Nasdaq or other principal market on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted.

 

 

 

 

[Signature Page Follows]


If the foregoing is in accordance with your understanding of our agreement, please sign and return to us the enclosed duplicate hereof, whereupon this letter and your acceptance shall represent a binding agreement among the Company and the Manager.

 

Very truly yours,
Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
By:   /s/ Timothy E. Sullivan
  Name: Timothy E. Sullivan
  Title: Chief Financial Officer

 

The foregoing Agreement is

hereby confirmed and accepted

as of the date first written above.

Citigroup Global Markets Inc.
By:   /s/ Jennifer Fox
  Name: Jennifer Fox
  Title: Managing Director


SCHEDULE 1

Form of Placement Notice

From: [ ]

Cc: [ ]

To: [ ]

Subject: Equity Distribution — Placement Notice

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Equity Distribution Agreement, dated December 28, 2018, by and between Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the “Company”) and Citigroup Global Markets Inc. (“Citigroup”) (the “Agreement”), I hereby request on behalf of the Company that Citigroup sell up to [ ] shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, at a minimum market price of $[ ] per share.

[ADDITIONAL SALES PARAMETERS MAY BE ADDED, SUCH AS THE MAXIMUM AGGREGATE OFFERING PRICE, THE TIME PERIOD IN WHICH SALES ARE REQUESTED TO BE MADE, SPECIFIC DATES THE SHARES MAY NOT BE SOLD ON, THE MANNER IN WHICH SALES ARE TO BE MADE BY CITIGROUP, AND/OR THE CAPACITY IN WHICH CITIGROUP MAY ACT IN SELLING SHARES (AS PRINCIPAL, AGENT, OR BOTH)]


SCHEDULE 2

The Company

Cedric Francois, Chief Executive Officer

Timothy Sullivan, Chief Financial Officer

Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

Robert Leonard, Managing Director

Eric Rosen, Vice President


SCHEDULE 3

Schedule of Free Writing Prospectuses included in the Disclosure Package

None.


Exhibit 4(k)

Form of Officer’s Certificate

The undersigned, the duly qualified and elected                                                , of Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Company”), a Delaware corporation, does hereby certify in such capacity and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 6(e) of the Equity Distribution Agreement dated December 28, 2018 (the “Agreement”) between the Company and Citigroup Global Markets Inc., that the undersigned has carefully examined the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus and any supplements or amendments thereto and the Agreement and that:

(i)    the representations and warranties of the Company set forth in the Agreement are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same effect as if made on the date hereof and the Company has complied with all the agreements and satisfied all the conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied at or prior to the date hereof;

(ii)    no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any notice objecting to its use has been issued and no proceedings for that purpose have been instituted or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened; and

(iii)    since the date of the most recent financial statements included in the Disclosure Package, there has been no Material Adverse Effect, except as set forth in or contemplated in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus.

Capitalized terms used herein without definition have the meanings ascribed to them in the Agreement.

Each of Cooley LLP, Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP, and Choate, Hall & Stewart LLP is entitled to rely on this certificate in connection with the opinions such firms are rendering pursuant to Section 6(d), Section 6(b) and Section 6(c), respectively, of the Agreement.

 

Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
By:    
Name:
Title:

Date:                                         


ANNEX I

APELLIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

Common Stock

TERMS AGREEMENT

                         , 20    

Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

388 Greenwich Street

New York, New York, 10013

Dear Sirs:

Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the “Company”) proposes, subject to the terms and conditions stated herein and in the Equity Distribution Agreement, December 28, 2018 (the “Equity Distribution Agreement”), between the Company and Citigroup Global Markets Inc., to issue and sell to Citigroup Global Markets Inc. the securities specified in the Schedule I hereto (the “Purchased Shares”).

Each of the provisions of the Equity Distribution Agreement not specifically related to the solicitation by Citigroup Global Markets Inc., as agent of the Company, of offers to purchase securities is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, and shall be deemed to be part of this Terms Agreement to the same extent as if such provisions had been set forth in full herein. Each of the representations and warranties set forth therein shall be deemed to have been made at and as of the date of this Terms Agreement and the Time of Delivery, except that each representation and warranty in Section 2 of the Equity Distribution Agreement which makes reference to the Prospectus (as therein defined) shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty as of the date of the Equity Distribution Agreement in relation to the Prospectus, and also a representation and warranty as of the date of this Terms Agreement and the Time of Delivery in relation to the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to relate to the Purchased Shares.

An amendment to the Registration Statement (as defined in the Equity Distribution Agreement), or a supplement to the Prospectus, as the case may be, relating to the Purchased Shares, in the form heretofore delivered to the Manager is now proposed to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Subject to the terms and conditions set forth herein and in the Equity Distribution Agreement which are incorporated herein by reference, the Company agrees to issue and sell to Citigroup Global Markets Inc. and the latter agrees to purchase from the Company the number of shares of the Purchased Shares at the time and place and at the purchase price set forth in the Schedule I hereto.


If the foregoing is in accordance with your understanding, please sign and return to us a counterpart hereof, whereupon this Terms Agreement, including those provisions of the Equity Distribution Agreement incorporated herein by reference, shall constitute a binding agreement between the Manager and the Company.

 

Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
By:    
  Name:
  Title:

 

ACCEPTED as of the date

first written above.

Citigroup Global Markets Inc.
By:    
  Name:
  Title:


Schedule I to Terms Agreement

Title of Purchased Shares:

Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per
share

Number of Shares of Purchased Shares:

Price to Public:

Purchase Price by Citigroup Global Markets Inc.:

Method of and Specified Funds for Payment of Purchase Price:

By wire transfer to a bank account specified by the Company in same day
funds.

Method of Delivery:

Free delivery of the Shares to the Manager’s account at The Depository Trust
Company in return for payment of the purchase price.

Time of Delivery:

Closing Location:

Documents to be Delivered:

The following documents referred to in the Equity Distribution Agreement
shall be delivered as a condition to the closing at the Time of Delivery:

(1) The opinion referred to in Section 4(l).

(2) The opinion referred to in Section 4(m).

(3) The opinion referred to in Section 4(n).

(3) The accountants’ letter referred to in Section 4(o).

(4) The officers’ certificate referred to in Section 4(k).

(5) Such other documents as the Manager shall reasonably request.

EX-4.3

Exhibit 4.3

APELLIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

and

 

 

Trustee

INDENTURE

Dated as of                     

SENIOR DEBT SECURITIES

 


CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE1

 

Section of

Trust Indenture Act

of 1939, as amended

   Section of
Indenture
310(a)    6.09
310(b)    6.08
   6.10
310(c)    Inapplicable
311(a)    6.13
311(b)    6.13
311(c)    Inapplicable
312(a)    4.01

4.04

312(b)    4.04(c)
312(c)    4.04(c)
313(a)    4.03
313(b)    4.03
313(c)    4.03
313(d)    4.03
314(a)    4.02
314(b)    Inapplicable
314(c)    2.04

8.04

9.01(c)

10.01(b)

11.05

314(d)    Inapplicable
314(e)    11.05
314(f)    Inapplicable
315(a)    6.01

6.02

315(b)    5.11
315(c)    6.01
315(d)    6.01
   6.02
315(e)    5.12
316(a)    5.09

5.10

   7.04
316(b)    5.06

5.10

316(c)    7.02
317(a)    5.04
317(b)    3.04
318(a)    11.07

 

1 

This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

         PAGE  
ARTICLE 1   DEFINITIONS      1  

Section 1.01

  Certain Terms Defined      1  

ARTICLE 2

  SECURITIES      7  

Section 2.01

  Forms Generally      7  

Section 2.02

  Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication      7  

Section 2.03

  Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series      7  

Section 2.04

  Authentication and Delivery of Securities      10  

Section 2.05

  Execution of Securities      11  

Section 2.06

  Certificate of Authentication      12  

Section 2.07

  Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest      12  

Section 2.08

  Registration, Transfer and Exchange      12  

Section 2.09

  Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities      15  

Section 2.10

  Cancellation of Securities; Destruction Thereof      16  

Section 2.11

  Temporary Securities      16  

ARTICLE 3

  COVENANTS OF THE ISSUER      16  

Section 3.01

  Payment of Principal and Interest      16  

Section 3.02

  Offices for Payments, Etc      17  

Section 3.03

  Appointment to Fill a Vacancy in Office of Trustee      17  

Section 3.04

  Paying Agents      17  

Section 3.05

  Written Statement to Trustee      18  

ARTICLE 4

  SECURITYHOLDERS LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE ISSUER AND THE TRUSTEE      18  

Section 4.01

  Issuer to Furnish Trustee Information as to Names and Addresses of Securityholders      18  

Section 4.02

  Reports by the Issuer      19  

Section 4.03

  Reports by the Trustee      19  

Section 4.04

  Preservation of Information; Communication with Securityholders      19  

ARTICLE 5

  REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT      19  

Section 5.01

  Event of Default Defined; Acceleration of Maturity; Waiver of Default      19  

Section 5.02

  Collection of Debt by Trustee; Trustee May Prove Debt      21  

Section 5.03

  Application of Proceeds      23  

Section 5.04

  Suits for Enforcement      24  

Section 5.05

  Restoration of Rights on Abandonment of Proceedings      24  

Section 5.06

  Limitations on Suits by Securityholders      25  

Section 5.07

  Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Institute Certain Suits      25  

 

i


Section 5.08

  Powers and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver of Default      26  

Section 5.09

  Control by Holders of Securities      26  

Section 5.10

  Waiver of Past Defaults      26  

Section 5.11

  Trustee to Give Notice of Default      27  

Section 5.12

  Right of Court to Require Filing of Undertaking to Pay Costs      27  

ARTICLE 6

  CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE      27  

Section 6.01

  Duties and Responsibilities of the Trustee; During Default; Prior to Default      27  

Section 6.02

  Certain Rights of the Trustee      28  

Section 6.03

  Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals, Disposition of Securities or Application of Proceeds Thereof      29  

Section 6.04

  Trustee and Agents May Hold Securities; Collections, Etc      30  

Section 6.05

  Moneys Held by Trustee      30  

Section 6.06

  Compensation and Indemnification of Trustee and Its Prior Claim      30  

Section 6.07

  Right of Trustee to Rely on Officer’s Certificate, Etc      30  

Section 6.08

  Disqualification; Conflicting Interests      31  

Section 6.09

  Persons Eligible for Appointment as Trustee      31  

Section 6.10

  Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor Trustee      31  

Section 6.11

  Acceptance of Appointment by Successor Trustee      32  

Section 6.12

  Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business of Trustee      33  

Section 6.13

  Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Issuer      34  

ARTICLE 7

  CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS      34  

Section 7.01

  Evidence of Action Taken by Securityholders      34  

Section 7.02

  Proof of Execution of Instruments and of Holding of Securities      34  

Section 7.03

  Holders to Be Treated as Owners      34  

Section 7.04

  Securities Owned by Issuer Deemed Not Outstanding      35  

Section 7.05

  Right of Revocation of Action Taken      35  

ARTICLE 8

  SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES      35  

Section 8.01

  Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Securityholders      35  

Section 8.02

  Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders      37  

Section 8.03

  Effect of Supplemental Indenture      38  

Section 8.04

  Documents to Be Given to Trustee      38  

Section 8.05

  Notation on Securities in Respect of Supplemental Indentures      39  

ARTICLE 9

  CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, SALE OR CONVEYANCE      39  

Section 9.01

  Issuer May Consolidate, Etc., on Certain Terms      39  

Section 9.02

  Successor Issuer Substituted      40  

ARTICLE 10

  SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE; UNCLAIMED MONEYS      40  

Section 10.01

  Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture; Defeasance      40  

 

ii


Section 10.02

  Application by Trustee of Funds Deposited for Payment of Securities      44  

Section 10.03

  Repayment of Moneys Held by Paying Agent      45  

Section 10.04

  Return of Moneys Held by Trustee and Paying Agent Unclaimed for Two Years      45  

Section 10.05

  Indemnity for U.S. Government Obligations and Foreign Government Obligations      45  

ARTICLE 11

  MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS      45  

Section 11.01

  No Recourse      45  

Section 11.02

  Provisions of Indenture for the Sole Benefit of Parties and Holders of Securities      46  

Section 11.03

  Successors and Assigns of Issuer Bound by Indenture      46  

Section 11.04

  Notices and Demands on Issuer, Trustee and Holders of Securities      46  

Section 11.05

  Officer’s Certificates and Opinions of Counsel; Statements to Be Contained Therein      47  

Section 11.06

  Payments Due on Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays      48  

Section 11.07

  Conflict of Any Provision of Indenture With Trust Indenture Act of 1939      48  

Section 11.08

  New York Law to Govern      48  

Section 11.09

  Counterparts      48  

Section 11.10

  Effect of Headings      48  

Section 11.11

  Actions by Successor      48  

Section 11.12

  Severability      48  

ARTICLE 12

  REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUNDS      48  

Section 12.01

  Applicability of Article      48  

Section 12.02

  Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions      49  

Section 12.03

  Payment of Securities Called for Redemption      50  

Section 12.04

  Exclusion of Certain Securities from Eligibility for Selection for Redemption      51  

Section 12.05

  Mandatory and Optional Sinking Funds      51  

 

 

iii


THIS INDENTURE, dated as of              between Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Issuer”), and              , a              (the “Trustee”),

W I T N E S S E T H :

WHEREAS, the Issuer may from time to time duly authorize the issue of its unsecured debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series (the “Securities”) up to such principal amount or amounts as may from time to time be authorized in accordance with the terms of this Indenture;

WHEREAS, the Issuer has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide, among other things, for the authentication, delivery and administration of the Securities; and

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid indenture and agreement according to its terms have been done;

NOW, THEREFORE:

In consideration of the premises and the purchases of the Securities by the holders thereof, the Issuer and the Trustee mutually covenant and agree for the equal and proportionate benefit of the respective holders from time to time of the Securities as follows:

ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS

Section 1.01 Certain Terms Defined. The following terms (except as otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise clearly requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 or the definitions of which in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended are referred to in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, including terms defined therein by reference to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise clearly requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act of 1933, as amended, as in force at the date of this Indenture. All accounting terms used herein and not expressly defined shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and the term “generally accepted accounting principles” means such accounting principles as are generally accepted in the United States at the time of any computation. The words “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision. The terms defined in this Article have the meanings assigned to them in this Article and include the plural as well as the singular.

“Additional Amounts” means any additional amounts that are required by this Indenture or by any Security, under circumstances specified herein or therein, to be paid by the Issuer in respect of certain taxes, assessments or other governmental charges imposed on Holders specified therein and which are owing to such Holders.


Applicable Procedures” means, with respect to a Depositary, as to any matter at any time, the policies and procedures of such Depositary, if any, that are applicable to such matter at such time.

Board of Directors” means either the Board of Directors of the Issuer or any committee of such Board duly authorized to act on its behalf.

Board Resolution” means a copy of one or more resolutions, certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Issuer to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect, and delivered to the Trustee.

Business Day” means, with respect to any Security, a day that in the city (or in any of the cities, if more than one) in which amounts are payable, as specified in the form of such Security, is not a day on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law or regulation to close.

“Capital Stock” means (a) in the case of a corporation, corporate stock; (b) in the case of an association or business entity, any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated) of corporate stock; (c) in the case of a partnership or limited liability company, partnership interests (whether general or limited) or membership interests; and (d) any other interest or participation that confers on a Person the right to receive a share of the profits and losses of, or distributions of assets of, the issuing Person, but excluding from all of the foregoing any Debt securities convertible into Capital Stock, whether or not such Debt securities include any right of participation with Capital Stock.

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or if at any time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, then the body performing such duties on such date.

Common Stock” means shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, of the Issuer as the same exists at the date of execution and delivery of this Indenture or as such stock may be reconstituted from time to time.

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which the corporate trust business of the Trustee shall, at any particular time, be principally administered, which office is, at the date as of which this Indenture is dated, located at             .

Debt” of any Person means any debt for money borrowed which is created, assumed, incurred or guaranteed in any manner by such Person or for which such Person is otherwise responsible or liable, and shall expressly include any such guaranty thereof by such Person. For the purpose of computing the amount of the Debt of any Person there shall be excluded all Debt of such Person for the payment or redemption or satisfaction of which money or securities (or evidences of such Debt, if permitted under the terms of the instrument creating such Debt) in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the proper depositary, whether upon or prior to the maturity or the date fixed for redemption of such Debt; and, in any instance where Debt is so excluded, for the purpose of computing the assets of such Person there shall be excluded the money, securities or evidences of Debt deposited by such Person in trust for the purpose of paying or satisfying such Debt.

 

2


Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in the form of one or more Global Securities, the Person designated as Depositary by the Issuer pursuant to Section 2.04 until a successor Depositary shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depositary” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Depositary hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any such series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Global Securities of that series.

Dollar” means the currency of the United States of America as at the time of payment is legal tender for the payment of public and private debts.

Event of Default” means any event or condition specified as such in Section 5.01.

Foreign Currency” means a currency issued by the government of a country other than the United States.

“Foreign Government Obligation” means (a) a direct obligation of the government of a country other than the United States of America, backed by the full faith and credit of such government, (b) an obligation of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of such government, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by such government or (c) any depositary receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933) as custodian with respect to any Foreign Government Obligation which is specified in clause (a) and held by such bank for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt, or with respect to any specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Foreign Government Obligation which is so specified and held, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Foreign Government Obligation or the specific payment of principal or interest evidenced by such depositary receipt.

Global Security” means a Security evidencing all or a part of a series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such series in accordance with Section 2.04, and bearing the legend prescribed in Section 2.04.

Holder”, “holder”, “holder of Securities”, “Securityholder” or other similar terms mean the Person in whose name such Security is registered in the Security register kept by the Issuer for that purpose in accordance with the terms hereof.

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed and delivered or, if amended or supplemented as herein provided, as so amended or supplemented or both, and shall include the forms and terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

interest”, unless the context otherwise requires, refers to interest, and when used with respect to non-interest bearing Securities, refers to interest payable after maturity, if any.

 

3


Interest Payment Date”, with respect to any Security, means the Stated Maturity of an installment of interest on such Security.

Issuer” means Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and, subject to Article 9, its successors and assigns.

Issuer Order” means a written statement, request or order of the Issuer signed in its name by the chairman of the Board of Directors, the president or any vice president of the Issuer.

“Notice of Default” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 5.01(c).

Officers Certificate” means a certificate signed by the chairman of the Board of Directors, the president, any vice president, the treasurer, the secretary or any assistant secretary of the Issuer and delivered to the Trustee. Each such certificate shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and, except to the extent provided herein, shall include the statements provided for in Section 11.05.

Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing signed by the general corporate counsel or such other legal counsel who may be an employee of or counsel to the Issuer and who shall be satisfactory to the Trustee. Each such opinion shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and shall include the statements provided for in Section 11.05, if and to the extent required hereby.

original issue date” of any Security (or portion thereof) means the earlier of (a) the date of such Security or (b) the date of any Security (or portion thereof) for which such Security was issued (directly or indirectly) on registration of transfer, exchange or substitution.

Original Issue Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01.

Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities, shall, subject to the provisions of Section 7.04, mean, as of any particular time, all Securities authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except

 

  (a)

Securities theretofore cancelled by the Trustee or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation;

 

  (b)

Securities, or portions thereof, for the payment or redemption of which cash, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations (as provided for in Section 10.01(a) and Section 10.01(b)) in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Issuer) or shall have been set aside, segregated and held in trust by the Issuer for the Holders of such Securities (if the Issuer shall act as its own paying agent); provided, that if such Securities, or portions thereof, are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as herein provided, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice;

 

4


  (c)

Securities as to which Legal Defeasance shall have been effected pursuant to Section 10.01(b);

 

  (d)

Securities in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered, or which shall have been paid, pursuant to the terms of Section 2.09 (except with respect to any such Security as to which proof satisfactory to the Trustee is presented that such Security is held by a Person in whose hands such Security is a legal, valid and binding obligation of the Issuer), Securities converted into Common Stock pursuant hereto and Securities not deemed outstanding pursuant to Section 12.02; and

 

  (e)

Securities as to which any property deliverable upon conversion thereof has been delivered (or such delivery has been made available), or as to which any other particular conditions have been satisfied, in each case as may be provided for such Securities as contemplated in Section 2.03.

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of Outstanding Securities of any or all series have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, (A) the principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security that shall be deemed to be Outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01, (B) if, as of such date, the principal amount payable at the Stated Maturity of a Security is not determinable, the principal amount of such Security which shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the amount as specified or determined as contemplated by Section 2.03, and (C) the principal amount of a Security denominated in one or more foreign currencies, composite currencies or currency units which shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the U.S. dollar equivalent, determined as of such date in the manner provided as contemplated by Section 2.03, of the principal amount of such Security (or, in the case of a Security described in clause (A) or (B) above, of the amount determined as provided in such clause).

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, limited partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, association, joint stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

principal” whenever used with reference to the Securities or any Security or any portion thereof, shall be deemed to include “and premium, if any”.

“record date” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 2.07.

Responsible Officer”, when used with respect to the Trustee, means the chairman of the board of directors, any vice chairman of the board of directors, the chairman of the trust committee, the chairman of the executive committee, any vice chairman of the executive committee, the president, any vice president, the cashier, the secretary, the treasurer, any trust

 

5


officer, any assistant trust officer, any assistant vice president, any assistant cashier, any assistant secretary, any assistant treasurer, or any other officer or assistant officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by the persons who at the time shall be such officers, respectively, or to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

Security” or “Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture, or, as the case may be, Securities that have been authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

Security Registrar” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 4.01(b).

Stated Maturity”, with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon or any Additional Amounts with respect thereto, means the date established by or pursuant to this Indenture or such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal or interest is, or such Additional Amounts are, due and payable.

Subsidiary” means any corporation or other entity (including, without limitation, partnerships, limited liability companies, joint ventures and associations) of which at least a majority of the outstanding Capital Stock having by the terms thereof (without regard to the occurrence or any contingency) ordinary voting power for the election of directors (or persons performing similar functions) of such corporation or other entity (irrespective of whether or not at the time the Capital Stock of any other class or classes of such corporation or other entity shall have or might have voting power by reason of the occurrence of any such contingency) is at the time directly or indirectly owned by the Issuer, or by one or more Subsidiaries of the Issuer, or by the Issuer and one or more other Subsidiaries of the Issuer.

Trust Indenture Act of 1939” (except as otherwise provided in Sections 8.01 and 8.02) means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as in force at the date as of which this Indenture was originally executed.

Trustee” means the Person identified as “Trustee” in the first paragraph hereof and, subject to the provisions of Article 6, shall also include any successor trustee. “Trustee” shall also mean or include each Person who is then a trustee hereunder and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean the trustee with respect to the Securities of such series.

U.S. Government Obligation” means (a) a direct obligation of the United States of America, backed by its full faith and credit, or (b) an obligation of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America.

vice president”, when used with respect to the Issuer or the Trustee, means any vice president, whether or not designated by a number or a word or words added before or after the title of “vice president”.

 

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Yield to Maturity” means the yield to maturity on a series of securities, calculated at the time of issuance of such series, or, if applicable, at the most recent redetermination of interest on such series, and calculated in accordance with accepted financial practice.

ARTICLE 2

SECURITIES

Section 2.01 Forms Generally. The Securities of each series shall be substantially in such form (not inconsistent with this Indenture) as shall be established by or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions (as set forth in a Board Resolution or, to the extent established pursuant to (rather than set forth in) a Board Resolution, an Officer’s Certificate detailing such establishment) or in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in each case with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as are required or permitted by this Indenture and may have imprinted or otherwise reproduced thereon such legend or legends or endorsements, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, as may be required to comply with any law or with any rules or regulations pursuant thereto, or with any rules of any securities exchange or to conform to general usage, all as may be determined by the officers executing such Securities as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.

The definitive Securities shall be printed, lithographed or engraved on steel engraved borders or may be produced in any other manner, all as determined by the officers executing such Securities as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.

Section 2.02 Form of Trustees Certificate of Authentication. The Trustee’s certificate of authentication on all Securities shall be in substantially the following form:

This is one of the Securities of the series designated herein and referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

 

as Trustee

By:  
 

 

Authorized Officer

Section 2.03 Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series. The aggregate principal amount of Securities which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.

The Securities may be issued in one or more series. The terms of a series of Securities shall be established prior to the initial issuance thereof in or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions, or, to the extent established pursuant to (rather than set forth in) a Board Resolution, in an Officer’s Certificate detailing such establishment and/or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto. The terms of such series reflected in such Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate, or supplemental indenture may include the following or any additional or different terms:

 

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  (a)

the designation of the Securities of the series (which may be part of a series of Securities previously issued);

 

  (b)

any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the series pursuant to Section 2.08, 2.09, 2.11, 8.05 or 12.03);

 

  (c)

the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable or the method used to determine those dates and the right, if any, to extend such date or dates;

 

  (d)

the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest, if any or the method by which such rate or rates shall be determined; the record date or dates for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable; the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue and on which such interest shall be payable, or the method by which such date or dates shall be determined; the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of that extension; and the basis upon which interest shall be calculated if other than that of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months;

 

  (e)

the place or places where the principal of and any interest on Securities of the series shall be payable (if other than as provided in Section 3.02);

 

  (f)

the obligation or the right, if any, of the Issuer to redeem, purchase or repay Securities of the series pursuant to any mandatory redemption, sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the price or prices at which and the period or periods within which and any terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series shall be redeemed, purchased or repaid, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation or right;

 

  (g)

if other than denominations of $2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof, the denominations in which Securities of the series shall be issuable;

 

  (h)

if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

  (i)

if other than Dollars, the currency, currencies or currency units in which the Securities of the series are denominated;

 

  (j)

if other than the currency in which the Securities of the series are denominated, the currency in which payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series shall be payable;

 

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  (k)

if the principal of or interest on the Securities of the series is to be payable, at the election of the Issuer or a Holder thereof, in a currency other than that in which the Securities are denominated, the period or periods within which, and the terms and conditions upon which, such election may be made;

 

  (l)

if the amount of payments of principal of and interest on the Securities of the series may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency other than that in which the Securities of the series are denominated, or by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, securities or baskets of securities, commodity prices or indices, the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;

 

  (m)

the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which conversion or exchange of the Securities into Common Stock will be effected, including the initial conversion or exchange price or rate and any adjustments thereto, the conversion or exchange period and other provisions in addition to or in lieu of those described herein;

 

  (n)

if the Securities of the series may be issued in exchange for surrendered Securities of another series, or for other securities of the Issuer, pursuant to the terms of such Securities or securities or of any agreement entered into by the Issuer, the ratio of the principal amount of the Securities of the series to be issued to the principal amount of the Securities or securities to be surrendered in exchange, and any other material terms of the exchange;

 

  (o)

if Sections 10.01(b) or 10.01(c) are inapplicable to Securities of such series;

 

  (p)

whether and under what circumstances the Issuer will pay Additional Amounts on the Securities and, if so, whether the Issuer will have the option to redeem such Securities rather than pay such additional amounts;

 

  (q)

if the Securities of such series are to be issuable in definitive form (whether upon original issue or upon exchange of a temporary Security of such series) only upon receipt of certain certificates or other documents or satisfaction of other conditions, then the form and terms of such certificates, documents or conditions;

 

  (r)

whether the Securities will be guaranteed as to payment or performance;

 

  (s)

any trustees, authenticating or paying agents, transfer agents or registrars or any other agents with respect to the Securities of such series;

 

  (t)

any other events of default or covenants with respect to the Securities of such series in addition to or in lieu of those contained in this Indenture; and

 

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  (u)

any other terms of the series.

The Issuer may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of any series of Securities, create and issue further Securities of any such series ranking equally with the Securities of such series in all respects (or in all respects other than (1) the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further Securities or (2) the first payment of interest following the issue date of such further Securities). Such further Securities may be consolidated and form a single series with the Securities of such series and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the Securities of such series.

Section 2.04    Authentication and Delivery of Securities. The Issuer may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Issuer to the Trustee for authentication together with the applicable documents referred to below in this Section, and the Trustee shall thereupon authenticate and deliver such Securities to or upon the order of the Issuer (contained in the Issuer Order referred to below in this Section) or pursuant to such procedures acceptable to the Trustee and to such recipients as may be specified from time to time by an Issuer Order. The maturity date, original issue date, interest rate and any other terms of the Securities of such series shall be determined by or pursuant to such Issuer Order and procedures. If provided for in such procedures, such Issuer Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to oral instructions from the Issuer or its duly authorized agent, which instructions shall be promptly confirmed in writing. In authenticating such Securities and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 6.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon:

 

  (a)

an Issuer Order requesting such authentication and setting forth delivery instructions if the Securities are not to be delivered to the Issuer;

 

  (b)

any Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate and/or executed supplemental indenture referred to in Sections 2.01 and 2.03 by or pursuant to which the forms and terms of the Securities were established;

 

  (c)

an Officer’s Certificate setting forth the form or forms and terms of the Securities stating that the form or forms and terms of the Securities have been established pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.03 and comply with this Indenture, and covering such other matters as the Trustee may reasonably request; and

 

  (d)

an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that:

 

  (i)

the form or forms and terms of such Securities have been established pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.03 and comply with this Indenture,

 

  (ii)

the authentication and delivery of such Securities by the Trustee are authorized under the provisions of this Indenture, and

 

  (iii)

such Securities when authenticated and delivered by the Trustee and issued by the Issuer in the manner and subject to any conditions specified in such Opinion of Counsel, will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Issuer,

 

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and covering such other matters as the Trustee may reasonably request.

The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities under this Section if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken by the Issuer or if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors or board of trustees, executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or trustees or Responsible Officers shall determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability to existing Holders or would affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities, this Indenture or otherwise.

The Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with this Section with respect to the Securities of a series, authenticate and deliver one or more Global Securities that (i) shall represent and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of all of the Securities of such series issued and not yet cancelled, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities or the nominee of such Depositary, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to such Depositary or pursuant to such Depositary’s instructions and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect:

“UNLESS AND UNTIL IT IS EXCHANGED IN WHOLE OR IN PART FOR SECURITIES IN DEFINITIVE REGISTERED FORM, THIS SECURITY MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED EXCEPT AS A WHOLE BY THE DEPOSITARY TO A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO THE DEPOSITARY OR ANOTHER NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY THE DEPOSITARY OR ANY SUCH NOMINEE TO A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF SUCH SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY.”

Each Depositary designated pursuant to this Section must, at the time of its designation and at all times while it serves as Depositary, be a clearing agency registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended and any other applicable statute or regulation.

Section 2.05    Execution of Securities. The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Issuer by the chairman of its Board of Directors, any vice chairman of its Board of Directors, its chief executive officer, its principal financial officer, its president, any vice president or its treasurer. Such signatures may be the manual or facsimile signatures of the present or any future such officers. Typographical and other minor errors or defects in any such reproduction of any such signature shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any Security that has been duly authenticated and delivered by the Trustee.

In case any officer of the Issuer who shall have signed any of the Securities shall cease to be such officer before the Security so signed shall be authenticated and delivered by the Trustee or disposed of by the Issuer, such Security nevertheless may be authenticated and delivered or disposed of as though the person who signed such Security had not ceased to be such officer of the Issuer; and any Security may be signed on behalf of the Issuer by such persons as, at the actual date of the execution of such Security, shall be the proper officers of the Issuer, although at the date of the execution and delivery of this Indenture any such person was not such an officer.

 

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Section 2.06    Certificate of Authentication. Only such Securities as shall bear thereon a certificate of authentication substantially in the form hereinbefore recited, executed by the Trustee by the manual signature of one of its authorized officers, shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose. The execution of such certificate by the Trustee upon any Security executed by the Issuer shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the Holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.

Section 2.07    Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest. The Securities of each series shall be issuable in denominations established as contemplated by Section 2.03 or, if not so established, in denominations of $2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 thereof. The Securities of each series shall be numbered, lettered or otherwise distinguished in such manner or in accordance with such plan as the officers of the Issuer executing the same may determine with the approval of the Trustee, as evidenced by the execution and authentication thereof. Unless otherwise indicated in a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture for a particular series, interest will be calculated on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.

Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. The Securities of each series shall bear interest, if any, from the date, and such interest shall be payable on the dates, established as contemplated by Section 2.03.

The Person in whose name any Security of any series is registered at the close of business on any record date applicable to a particular series with respect to any Interest Payment Date for such series shall be entitled to receive the interest, if any, payable on such Interest Payment Date notwithstanding any transfer, exchange or conversion of such Security subsequent to the record date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, except if and to the extent the Issuer shall default in the payment of the interest due on such Interest Payment Date for such series, in which case such defaulted interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names Outstanding Securities for such series are registered at the close of business on a subsequent record date (which shall be not less than five Business Days prior to the date of payment of such defaulted interest) established by notice given by or on behalf of the Issuer to the Holders of Securities not less than 15 days preceding such subsequent record date. The term “record date” as used with respect to any Interest Payment Date (except a date for payment of defaulted interest) for the Securities of any series shall mean the date specified as such in the terms of the Securities of such series established as contemplated by Section 2.03, or, if no such date is so specified, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a calendar month, the 15th day of the immediately preceding calendar month or, if such Interest Payment Date is the 15th day of a calendar month, the first day of such calendar month, whether or not such record date is a Business Day.

Section 2.08    Registration, Transfer and Exchange. The Issuer will keep at each office or agency to be maintained for the purpose as provided in Section 3.02 for each series of Securities a register or registers in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, it will provide for the registration of Securities of such series and the registration of transfer of Securities of such series. Such register shall be in written form in the English language or in any other form capable of being converted into such form within a reasonable time. At all reasonable times such register or registers shall be open for inspection by the Trustee.

 

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Upon due presentation for registration of transfer of any Security of any series at any such office or agency to be maintained for the purpose as provided in Section 3.02, the Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series, maturity date, interest rate and original issue date in authorized denominations for a like aggregate principal amount.

At the option of the Holder thereof, Securities of any series (except a Global Security) may be exchanged for a Security or Securities of such series having authorized denominations and an equal aggregate principal amount, upon surrender of such Securities to be exchanged at the agency of the Issuer that shall be maintained for such purpose in accordance with Section 3.02 and upon payment, if the Issuer shall so require, of the charges hereinafter provided. Whenever any Securities are so surrendered for exchange, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, the Securities which the Holder making the exchange is entitled to receive. All Securities surrendered upon any exchange or transfer provided for in this Indenture shall be promptly cancelled and disposed of by the Trustee and the Trustee will deliver a certificate of disposition thereof to the Issuer.

All Securities presented for registration of transfer, exchange, redemption or payment shall (if so required by the Issuer or the Trustee) be duly endorsed by, or be accompanied by a written instrument or instruments of transfer in form satisfactory to the Issuer and the Trustee duly executed by, the Holder or his or her attorney duly authorized in writing.

The Issuer may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any stamp or other tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities. No service charge shall be made for any such transaction.

The Issuer shall not be required to exchange or register a transfer of (a) any Securities of any series for a period of 15 days immediately preceding the first delivery of notice of redemption of Securities of such series to be redeemed or (b) any Securities selected, called or being called for redemption, in whole or in part, except, in the case of any Security to be redeemed in part, the portion thereof not so to be redeemed.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Section 2.08, unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Securities in definitive registered form, a Global Security representing all or a portion of the Securities of a series may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary for such series to a nominee of such Depositary or by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by such Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary for such series or a nominee of such successor Depositary.

 

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If at any time the Depositary for the Securities of a series notifies the Issuer that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for the Securities of such series or if at any time the Depositary for the Securities of a series shall no longer be eligible under Section 2.04, the Issuer shall appoint a successor Depositary with respect to the Securities of such series. If a successor Depositary for the Securities of such series is not appointed by the Issuer within 90 days after the Issuer receives such notice or becomes aware of such ineligibility, the Issuer’s determination pursuant to Section 2.03 that the Securities of such series be represented by a Global Security shall no longer be effective and the Issuer will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate for the authentication and delivery of definitive Securities of such series, will authenticate and deliver, Securities of such series in definitive registered form, in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security or Securities representing the Securities of such series, in exchange for such Global Security or Securities.

The Issuer may at any time and in its sole discretion determine that the Securities of any series issued in the form of one or more Global Securities shall no longer be represented by a Global Security or Securities. In such event the Issuer will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate for the authentication and delivery of definitive Securities of such series, will authenticate and deliver, Securities of such series in definitive registered form, in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security or Securities representing such series, in exchange for such Global Security or Securities.

The Depositary for such Global Security may surrender such Global Security in exchange in whole or in part for Securities of the same series in definitive registered form in accordance with the two preceding paragraphs or on such other terms as are acceptable to the Issuer and such Depositary. Thereupon, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, without service charge,

 

  (i)

to the Person specified by such Depositary a new Security or Securities of the same series, of any authorized denominations as requested by such Person, in an aggregate principal amount equal to and in exchange for such Person’s beneficial interest in the Global Security; and

 

  (ii)

to such Depositary a new Global Security in a denomination equal to the difference, if any, between the principal amount of the surrendered Global Security and the aggregate principal amount of Securities authenticated and delivered pursuant to clause (i) above.

Upon the exchange of a Global Security for Securities in definitive registered form, in authorized denominations, such Global Security shall be cancelled by the Trustee. Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for a Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.08 shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary for such Global Security, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to or as directed by the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

 

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All Securities issued upon any transfer or exchange of Securities shall be valid obligations of the Issuer, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such transfer or exchange.

Section 2.09 Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities. In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or defaced or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Issuer in its discretion may execute, and upon the written request of any officer of the Issuer, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver a new Security of the same series, maturity date, interest rate and original issue date, bearing a number or other distinguishing symbol not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated or defaced Security, or in lieu of and substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substitute Security shall furnish to the Issuer and to the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to indemnify and defend and to save each of them harmless and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof and in the case of mutilation or defacement shall surrender the Security to the Trustee.

Upon the issuance of any substitute Security, the Issuer may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith. In case any Security which has matured or is about to mature or has been called for redemption in full, or is being surrendered for conversion in full, shall become mutilated or defaced or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Issuer may, instead of issuing a substitute Security (with the Holder’s consent, in the case of convertible Securities), pay or authorize the payment of the same or convert, or authorize conversion of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated or defaced Security), if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Issuer and to the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee such security or indemnity as any of them may require to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Issuer and the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

Every substitute Security of any series issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section by virtue of the fact that any such Security is destroyed, lost or stolen shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Issuer, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone and shall be entitled to all the benefits of (but shall be subject to all the limitations of rights set forth in) this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of such series duly authenticated and delivered hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that, to the extent permitted by law, the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment or conversion of mutilated, defaced or destroyed, lost or stolen Securities and shall preclude any and all other rights or remedies notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

 

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Section 2.10 Cancellation of Securities; Destruction Thereof. All Securities surrendered for exchange for Securities of the same series or for payment, redemption, registration of transfer or conversion or for credit against any payment in respect of a sinking or analogous fund, if surrendered to the Issuer or any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee, shall be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it; and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. The Trustee shall dispose of cancelled Securities held by it and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Issuer. If the Issuer shall acquire any of the Securities, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the Debt represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

Section 2.11 Temporary Securities. Pending the preparation of definitive Securities for any series, the Issuer may execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver temporary Securities for such series (printed, lithographed, typewritten or otherwise reproduced, in each case in form satisfactory to the Trustee). Temporary Securities of any series shall be issuable in any authorized denomination, and substantially in the form of the definitive Securities of such series but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Issuer with the concurrence of the Trustee as evidenced by the execution and authentication thereof. Temporary Securities may contain such reference to any provisions of this Indenture as may be appropriate. Every temporary Security shall be executed by the Issuer and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities. Without unreasonable delay the Issuer shall execute and shall furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor without charge at each office or agency to be maintained by the Issuer for that purpose pursuant to Section 3.02 and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities of such series an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of the same series having authorized denominations. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of any series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series, unless the benefits of the temporary Securities are limited pursuant to Section 2.03.

ARTICLE 3

COVENANTS OF THE ISSUER

Section 3.01 Payment of Principal and Interest. The Issuer covenants and agrees for the benefit of each series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of, and interest on, each of the Securities of such series (together with any additional amounts payable pursuant to the terms of such Securities) at the place or places, at the respective times and in the manner provided in such Securities and in this Indenture. The interest on Securities (together with any additional amounts payable pursuant to the terms of such Securities) shall be payable only to or upon the written order of the Holders thereof and at the option of the Issuer may be paid by mailing checks for such interest payable to or upon the written order of such Holders at their last addresses as they appear on the Security register of the Issuer.

 

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Section 3.02 Offices for Payments, Etc. The Issuer will maintain (i) in             , an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for payment, an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for exchange and conversion, if applicable, as provided in this Indenture and an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for registration of transfer as in this Indenture provided and (ii) such further agencies in such places as may be determined for the Securities of such series pursuant to Section 2.03.

The Issuer will maintain in             , an agency where notices and demands to or upon the Issuer in respect of the Securities of any series or this Indenture may be served.

The Issuer will give to the Trustee written notice of the location of each such agency and of any change of location thereof. In case the Issuer shall fail to maintain any agency required by this Section to be located in             , or shall fail to give such notice of the location or of any change in the location of any of the above agencies, presentations and demands may be made and notices may be served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee.

The Issuer may from time to time designate one or more additional agencies where the Securities of a series may be presented for payment, where the Securities of that series may be presented for exchange or conversion, if applicable, as provided in this Indenture and pursuant to Section 2.03 and where the Securities of that series may be presented for registration of transfer as in this Indenture provided, and the Issuer may from time to time rescind any such designation, as the Issuer may deem desirable or expedient; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Issuer of its obligation to maintain the agencies provided for in this Section. The Issuer will give to the Trustee prompt written notice of any such designation or rescission thereof.

Section 3.03 Appointment to Fill a Vacancy in Office of Trustee. The Issuer, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 6.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to each series of Securities hereunder.

Section 3.04 Paying Agents. Whenever the Issuer shall appoint a paying agent other than the Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series, it will cause such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section,

 

  (a)

that it will hold all sums received by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Issuer or by any other obligor on the Securities of such series) in trust for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series or of the Trustee,

 

  (b)

that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Issuer (or by any other obligor on the Securities of such series) to make any payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series when the same shall be due and payable, and

 

  (c)

that at any time during the continuance of any such failure, upon the written request of the Trustee, it will forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent.

 

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The Issuer will, on or prior to each due date of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay such principal or interest so becoming due, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee of any failure to take such action.

If the Issuer shall act as its own paying agent with respect to the Securities of any series, it will, on or before each due date of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series a sum sufficient to pay such principal or interest so becoming due. The Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee of any failure to take such action.

Anything in this Section to the contrary notwithstanding, but subject to Section 10.01, the Issuer may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining a satisfaction and discharge with respect to one or more or all series of Securities hereunder, or for any other reason, pay or cause to be paid to the Trustee all sums held in trust for any such series by the Issuer or any paying agent hereunder, as required by this Section, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the trusts herein contained.

Anything in this Section to the contrary notwithstanding, the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Sections 10.03 and 10.04.

Section 3.05 Written Statement to Trustee. So long as any Securities are Outstanding hereunder, the Issuer will deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Issuer ending after the date hereof, a written certificate covering the previous fiscal year, (which need not comply with Section 11.05), signed by its principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer, stating whether or not, to the best knowledge of such officer, the Issuer is in default in the performance and observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions of this Indenture (without regard to any period of grace or requirement of notice provided hereunder) and, if the Issuer shall be in default, specifying all such defaults and the nature and status thereof of which they may have knowledge.

ARTICLE 4

SECURITYHOLDERS LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE ISSUER AND THE TRUSTEE

Section 4.01 Issuer to Furnish Trustee Information as to Names and Addresses of Securityholders. The Issuer covenants and agrees that it will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee a list in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require of the names and addresses of the Holders of the Securities of each series pursuant to Section 312 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939:

 

  (a)

semiannually and not more than 15 days after each record date for the payment of interest on such Securities, as hereinabove specified, as of such record date and on dates to be determined pursuant to Section 2.03 for non-interest bearing Securities in each year, and

 

  (b)

at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, within 30 days after receipt by the Issuer of any such request as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such information is furnished, provided, that, if and so long as the Trustee shall be the Security registrar (the “Security Registrar”) for such series, such list shall not be required to be furnished.

 

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Section 4.02 Reports by the Issuer. The Issuer covenants to comply with Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 insofar as it relates to information, documentation and other reports which the Issuer may be required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

Section 4.03 Reports by the Trustee. Any Trustee’s report required under Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 shall be transmitted on or before              in each year following the date hereof, so long as any Securities are Outstanding hereunder, and shall be dated as of a date convenient to the Trustee but no more than 60 nor less than 45 days prior thereto. The Trustee shall comply with Sections 313(b), 313(c) and 313(d) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

Section 4.04 Preservation of Information; Communication with Securityholders. (a) The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the Holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 4.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity).

 

  (b)

The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 4.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

 

  (c)

Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities. The Issuer, the Trustee, the Security Registrar and any other Person shall have the protection of Section 312(c) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

ARTICLE 5

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

Section 5.01 Event of Default Defined; Acceleration of Maturity; Waiver of Default. Event of Default”, with respect to Securities of any series wherever used herein, means any one of the following events which shall have occurred and be continuing (whatever the reason for such Event of Default and whether it shall be voluntary or involuntary or be effected by operation of law or pursuant to any judgment, decree or order of any court or any order, rule or regulation of any administrative or governmental body):

 

  (a)

default in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (or such other period as may be established for the Securities of such series as contemplated by Section 2.03); or

 

  (b)

default in the payment of all or any part of the principal on any of the Securities of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable either at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise (and, if established for the Securities of such series as contemplated by Section 2.03, the continuance of such default for a specified period); or

 

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  (c)

default in the performance, or breach, of any covenant or agreement of the Issuer in respect of the Securities of such series (other than a covenant or agreement in respect of the Securities of such series a default in the performance or breach of which is elsewhere in this Section specifically dealt with), and continuance of such default or breach for a period of 90 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Issuer by the Trustee or to the Issuer and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series, a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder; or

 

  (d)

a court having jurisdiction in the premises shall enter a decree or order for relief in respect of the Issuer in an involuntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or appointing a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee or sequestrator (or similar official) of the Issuer or for all or substantially all of its property and assets or ordering the winding up or liquidation of its affairs, and such decree or order shall remain unstayed and in effect for a period of 90 consecutive days; or

 

  (e)

the Issuer shall commence a voluntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or consent to the entry of an order for relief in an involuntary case under any such law, or consent to the appointment of or taking possession by a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee or sequestrator (or similar official) of the Issuer or for any substantial part of its property and assets, or make any general assignment for the benefit of creditors; or

 

  (f)

any other Event of Default provided for in such series of Securities.

If an Event of Default described in clauses (a), (b), (c) or (f) occurs and is continuing, then, and in each and every such case, unless the principal of all of the Securities of such series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding hereunder (each such series voting as a separate class) by notice in writing to the Issuer (and also to the Trustee if given by Securityholders), may declare the entire principal (or, if the Securities of such series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series) of all Securities of such series and the interest accrued thereon, if any, to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default described in clauses (d) or (e) occurs and is continuing, then and in each and every such case, the entire principal (or, if any Securities are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal as may be specified in the terms thereof) of all the Securities then Outstanding and interest accrued thereon, if any, shall automatically become immediately due and payable.

 

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The foregoing provisions, however, are subject to the condition that if, at any time after the principal of the Securities of any series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the Issuer shall pay or shall deposit with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of such series and the principal of any and all Securities of such series which shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and, to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law, on overdue installments of interest, at the same rate as the rate of interest specified in the Securities of such series to the date of such payment or deposit) and such amount as shall be sufficient to cover reasonable compensation to the Trustee, its agents, attorneys and counsel, and all other expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee except as a result of negligence or bad faith, and if any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the non-payment of the principal of Securities of such series which shall have become due solely by such acceleration, shall have been cured, waived or otherwise remedied as provided herein, then and in every such case the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the Securities of such series then Outstanding, by written notice to the Issuer and to the Trustee, may waive all defaults with respect to such series and rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences, but no such waiver or rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or shall impair any right consequent thereon.

Unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture for a series of Original Issue Discount Securities, for all purposes under this Indenture, if a portion of the principal of any Original Issue Discount Securities shall have been accelerated and declared due and payable pursuant to the provisions hereof, then, from and after such declaration, unless such declaration has been rescinded and annulled, the principal amount of such Original Issue Discount Securities shall be deemed, for all purposes hereunder, to be such portion of the principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, and payment of such portion of the principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, together with interest, if any, thereon and all other amounts owing thereunder, shall constitute payment in full of such Original Issue Discount Securities.

Section 5.02 Collection of Debt by Trustee; Trustee May Prove Debt. The Issuer covenants that (a) in case default shall be made in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of any series when such interest shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 30 days or (b) in case default shall be made in the payment of all or any part of the principal of any of the Securities of any series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of such series or upon any redemption or by declaration or otherwise, then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Issuer will pay to the Trustee for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series the whole amount that then shall have become due and payable on all Securities of such series for principal or interest, as the case may be (with interest to the date of such payment upon the overdue principal and, to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law, on overdue installments of interest at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to

 

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Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of such series); and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including reasonable compensation to the Trustee and each predecessor trustee, their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and any expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee except as a result of its negligence or bad faith.

In case the Issuer shall fail forthwith to pay such amounts upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceedings to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Issuer or other obligor upon such Securities and collect in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Issuer or other obligor upon such Securities, wherever situated, the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable.

In case there shall be pending proceedings relative to the Issuer or any other obligor upon the Securities under Title 11 of the United States Code or any other applicable Federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law, or in case a receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization, liquidator, sequestrator or similar official shall have been appointed for or taken possession of the Issuer or its property or such other obligor or its property, or in case of any other comparable judicial proceedings relative to the Issuer or other obligor upon the Securities of any series, or to the creditors or property of the Issuer or such other obligor, the Trustee, irrespective of whether the principal of any Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand pursuant to the provisions of this Section, shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceedings or otherwise:

 

  (i)

to file and prove a claim or claims for the whole amount of principal and interest (or, if the Securities of any series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series) owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities of any series, and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for reasonable compensation to the Trustee and each predecessor trustee, and their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and for reimbursement of all expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee, except as a result of negligence or bad faith) and of the Securityholders allowed in any judicial proceedings relative to the Issuer or other obligor upon the Securities of any series, or to the creditors or property of the Issuer or such other obligor,

 

  (ii)

unless prohibited by applicable law and regulations, to vote on behalf of the Holders of the Securities of any series in any election of a trustee or a standby trustee in arrangement, reorganization, liquidation or other bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings or person performing similar functions in comparable proceedings, and

 

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  (iii)

to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims, and to distribute all amounts received with respect to the claims of the Securityholders and of the Trustee on their behalf; and any trustee, receiver or liquidator, custodian or other similar official is hereby authorized by each of the Securityholders to make payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of payments directly to the Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee such amounts as shall be sufficient to cover reasonable compensation to the Trustee, each predecessor trustee and their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and all other expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee except as a result of negligence or bad faith and all other amounts due to the Trustee or any predecessor trustee pursuant to Section 6.06.

Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or vote for or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of any series or the rights of any Holder thereof, or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding except, as aforesaid, to vote for the election of a trustee in bankruptcy or similar person.

All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the Securities of any series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities of such series or the production thereof on any trial or other proceedings relative thereto, and any such action or proceedings instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment, subject to the payment of the expenses, disbursements and compensation of the Trustee, each predecessor trustee and their respective agents and attorneys, shall be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such action was taken.

In any proceedings brought by the Trustee (and also any proceedings involving the interpretation of any provision of this Indenture to which the Trustee shall be a party), the Trustee shall be held to represent all the Holders of the Securities in respect to which such action was taken, and it shall not be necessary to make any Holders of such Securities parties to any such proceedings.

Section 5.03 Application of Proceeds. Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article in respect of any series shall be applied in the following order at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal or interest, upon presentation of the several Securities in respect of which monies have been collected and stamping (or otherwise noting) thereon the payment, or issuing Securities of such series in reduced principal amounts in exchange for the presented Securities of like series if only partially paid, or upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

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FIRST: To the payment of all amounts due to the Trustee or any predecessor trustee pursuant to Section 6.06;

SECOND: In case the principal of the Securities of such series in respect of which moneys have been collected shall not have become and be then due and payable, to the payment of interest on the Securities of such series in default in the order of the maturity of the installments of such interest, with interest (to the extent that such interest has been collected by the Trustee) upon the overdue installments of interest, to the extent permitted by applicable law, at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in such Securities, such payments to be made ratably to the Persons entitled thereto, without discrimination or preference;

THIRD: In case the principal of the Securities of such series in respect of which moneys have been collected shall have become and shall be then due and payable, to the payment of the whole amount then owing and unpaid upon all the Securities of such series for principal and interest, with interest upon the overdue principal, and (to the extent that such interest has been collected by the Trustee) upon overdue installments of interest, to the extent permitted by applicable law, at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of such series; and in case such moneys shall be insufficient to pay in full the whole amount so due and unpaid upon the Securities of such series, then to the payment of such principal and interest, without preference or priority of principal over interest, or of interest over principal, or of any installment of interest over any other installment of interest, or of any Security of such series over any other Security of such series, ratably to the aggregate of such principal and accrued and unpaid interest; and

FOURTH: To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Issuer or any other Person lawfully entitled thereto.

Section 5.04 Suits for Enforcement. In case an Event of Default has occurred, has not been waived and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

Section 5.05 Restoration of Rights on Abandonment of Proceedings. In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case (subject to any determination in such proceeding) the Issuer and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Issuer, the Trustee and the Securityholders shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

 

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Section 5.06 Limitations on Suits by Securityholders. No Holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue, or by availing itself, of any provision of this Indenture to institute any action or proceeding at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise upon or under or with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a trustee, receiver, liquidator, custodian or other similar official or for any other remedy hereunder, unless such Holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of default and of the continuance thereof, as hereinbefore provided, and unless also the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action or proceedings in its own name as trustee hereunder and shall have offered to the Trustee such reasonable indemnity as it may require against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred therein or thereby and the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity shall have failed to institute any such action or proceeding and no direction inconsistent with such written request shall have been given to the Trustee pursuant to Section 5.09; it being understood and intended, and being expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security of a particular series with every other Holder of Securities of such series and the Trustee, that no one or more Holders of Securities of any series shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other such Holder of Securities of such series, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such Holder of such series or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all Holders of Securities of the applicable series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

Section 5.07 Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Institute Certain Suits. Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture and any provision of any Security, the right of any Holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of and interest on such Security on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security in accordance with the terms hereof and thereof, or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such Holder; it being understood and intended, and being expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security of a particular series with every other Holder of Securities of such Series and the Trustee, that no one or more Holders of Securities of any series shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other such Holder of Securities of such series, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such Holder of Securities of such series or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all Holders of Securities of the applicable series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

 

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Section 5.08 Powers and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver of Default. Except as provided in Section 5.06, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders of Securities is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein; and, subject to Section 5.06, every power and remedy given by this Indenture or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders of Securities may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders of Securities.

Section 5.09 Control by Holders of Securities. The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series affected (with each series voting as a separate class) at the time Outstanding shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series by this Indenture; provided, that such direction shall not be otherwise than in accordance with law and the provisions of this Indenture and provided, further, that (subject to the provisions of Section 6.01) the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, shall determine that the action or proceeding so directed may not lawfully be taken or if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors, the executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or Responsible Officers of the Trustee shall determine that the action or proceedings so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability or if the Trustee in good faith shall so determine that the actions or forbearances specified in or pursuant to such direction would be unduly prejudicial to the interests of Holders of the Securities of all series so affected not joining in the giving of said direction, it being understood that (subject to Section 6.01) the Trustee shall have no duty to ascertain whether or not such actions or forbearances are unduly prejudicial to such Holders.

Nothing in this Indenture shall impair the right of the Trustee in its discretion to take any action deemed proper by the Trustee and which is not inconsistent with such direction or directions by Securityholders.

Section 5.10 Waiver of Past Defaults. The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, by notice to the Trustee, may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such series waive any existing default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.03 with respect to such series and its consequences, except an uncured default in the payment of the principal of, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities; and may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration. In the case of any such waiver, the Issuer, the Trustee and the Holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively, such default shall cease to exist and be deemed to have been cured and not to have occurred, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, and not to have occurred for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or Event of Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

26


Section 5.11 Trustee to Give Notice of Default. The Trustee shall, within 90 days after the occurrence of a default with respect to the Securities of any series, give notice of all defaults with respect to that series known to the Trustee to all Holders of Securities of such series in the manner and to the extent provided in Sections 4.03 and 11.04, unless in each case such defaults shall have been cured before the giving of such notice (the term “defaults” for the purpose of this Section being hereby defined to mean any event or condition which is, or with notice or lapse of time or both would become, an Event of Default); provided, that, except in the case of default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any of the Securities of such series, or in the payment of any sinking fund installment on such series, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the board of directors, the executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or trustees and/or Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determines that the withholding of such notice is in the interests of the Securityholders of such series.

Section 5.12 Right of Court to Require Filing of Undertaking to Pay Costs. All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his or her acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder or group of Securityholders of any series holding in the aggregate more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

ARTICLE 6

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

Section 6.01 Duties and Responsibilities of the Trustee; During Default; Prior to Default. With respect to the Holders of any series of Securities issued hereunder, the Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a particular series and after the curing or waiving of all Events of Default which may have occurred with respect to such series, undertakes to perform such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (and has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs.

 

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No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct.

Section 6.02 Certain Rights of the Trustee. In furtherance of and subject to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and subject to Section 6.01:

 

  (a)

in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any statements, certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but, in the case of any such statements, certificates or opinions which by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture;

 

  (b)

the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

 

  (c)

the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders pursuant to Section 5.09 relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture;

 

  (d)

none of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers if there shall be reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or adequate indemnity against such liability is not reasonably assured to it;

 

  (e)

the Trustee may rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, Officer’s Certificate or any other certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

 

  (f)

any request, direction, order or demand of the Issuer mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by an Officer’s Certificate (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed); and any resolution of the Board of Directors may be evidenced to the Trustee by a copy thereof certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Issuer;

 

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  (g)

the Trustee may consult with counsel and any advice or Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it hereunder in good faith and in accordance with such advice or Opinion of Counsel;

 

  (h)

the Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the trusts or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that might be incurred therein or thereby;

 

  (i)

the Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion, rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

 

  (j)

prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default hereunder and after the curing or waiving of all Events of Default, the Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, appraisal, bond, debenture, note, security, or other paper or document unless requested in writing so to do by the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of all series affected then Outstanding; provided, that, if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require reasonable indemnity against such expenses or liabilities as a condition to proceeding; the reasonable expenses of every such investigation shall be paid by the Issuer or, if paid by the Trustee or any predecessor trustee, shall be repaid by the Issuer upon demand; and

 

  (k)

the Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys not regularly in its employ and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any such agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder.

Section 6.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals, Disposition of Securities or Application of Proceeds Thereof. The recitals contained herein and in the Securities, except the Trustee’s certificates of authentication, shall be taken as the statements of the Issuer, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same. The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities. The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Issuer of any of the Securities or of the proceeds thereof.

 

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Section 6.04 Trustee and Agents May Hold Securities; Collections, Etc. The Trustee or any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not the Trustee or such agent and may otherwise deal with the Issuer and receive, collect, hold and retain collections from the Issuer with the same rights it would have if it were not the Trustee or such agent.

Section 6.05 Moneys Held by Trustee. Subject to the provisions of Section 10.04 hereof, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by mandatory provisions of law. Neither the Trustee nor any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee shall be under any liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder.

Section 6.06 Compensation and Indemnification of Trustee and Its Prior Claim. The Issuer covenants and agrees to pay to the Trustee from time to time, and the Trustee shall be entitled to, such reasonable compensation (which shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust) as the Issuer and the Trustee may from time to time agree in writing and, except as otherwise expressly provided herein, the Issuer covenants and agrees to pay or reimburse the Trustee and each predecessor trustee upon its request for all reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by or on behalf of it in accordance with any of the provisions of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its counsel and of all agents and other persons not regularly in its employ) except any such expense, disbursement or advance as may arise from its negligence or bad faith. The Issuer also covenants to indemnify the Trustee and each predecessor trustee for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, liability or expense incurred without negligence or bad faith on its part, arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of this Indenture or the trusts hereunder and its duties hereunder, including the costs and expenses of defending itself against or investigating any claim of liability in the premises. The obligations of the Issuer under this Section to compensate and indemnify the Trustee and each predecessor trustee and to pay or reimburse the Trustee and each predecessor trustee for expenses, disbursements and advances shall constitute additional indebtedness hereunder and shall survive the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture. Such additional indebtedness shall be a senior claim to that of the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the benefit of the Holders of particular Securities, and the Securities are hereby subordinated to such senior claim.

Section 6.07 Right of Trustee to Rely on Officers Certificate, Etc. Subject to Sections 6.01 and 6.02, whenever in the administration of the trusts of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee, and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.

 

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Section 6.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests. If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Issuer shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Section 6.09 Persons Eligible for Appointment as Trustee. The Trustee for each series of Securities hereunder shall at all times be a corporation having a combined capital and surplus of at least $50,000,000 and shall be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939. If such corporation publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of a Federal, State or District of Columbia supervising or examining authority, then, for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published.

Section 6.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor Trustee. (a) The Trustee, or any trustee or trustees hereafter appointed, may at any time resign with respect to one or more or all series of Securities by giving written notice of resignation to the Issuer and by delivering notice of such resignation to the Holders of then Outstanding Securities of each series affected at their addresses as they shall appear on the Security register. Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Issuer shall promptly appoint a successor trustee or trustees with respect to the applicable series by written instrument in duplicate, executed by authority of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee or trustees. If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed with respect to any series and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the delivery of such notice of resignation, the resigning trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee, or any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of the applicable series for at least six months may, on behalf of himself or herself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon, after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.

 

  (b)

In case at any time any of the following shall occur:

 

  (i)

the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 with respect to any series of Securities after written request therefor by the Issuer or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of such series for at least six months; or

 

  (ii)

the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Issuer or by any Securityholder; or

 

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  (iii)

the Trustee shall become incapable of acting with respect to any series of Securities, or shall be adjudged bankrupt or insolvent, or a receiver or liquidator of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation;

then, in any such case, (A) the Issuer may remove the Trustee with respect to the applicable series of Securities and appoint a successor trustee for such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or, (B) subject to Section 315(e) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of such series for at least six months may on behalf of itself and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to such series. Such court may thereupon, after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

 

  (c)

The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to Securities of such series and, with the consent of the Issuer, appoint a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of such series by delivering to the Trustee so removed, to the successor trustee so appointed and to the Issuer the evidence provided for in Section 7.01 of the action in that regard taken by the Securityholders.

 

  (d)

Any resignation or removal of the Trustee with respect to any series and any appointment of a successor trustee with respect to such series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section 6.10 shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 6.11.

Section 6.11 Acceptance of Appointment by Successor Trustee. Any successor trustee appointed as provided in Section 6.10 shall execute and deliver to the Issuer and to its predecessor trustee an instrument accepting such appointment hereunder, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the predecessor trustee with respect to all or any applicable series shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all rights, powers, duties and obligations with respect to such series of its predecessor hereunder, with like effect as if originally named as trustee for such series hereunder; but, nevertheless, on the written request of the Issuer or of the successor trustee, upon payment of its charges then unpaid, the trustee ceasing to act shall, subject to Section 10.04, pay over to the successor trustee all moneys at the time held by it hereunder and shall execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all such rights, powers, duties and obligations. Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Issuer shall execute any and all instruments in writing for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights and powers. Any trustee ceasing to act shall, nevertheless, retain a prior claim upon all property or funds held or collected by such trustee to secure any amounts then due it pursuant to the provisions of Section 6.06.

 

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If a successor trustee is appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Issuer, the predecessor trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of any applicable series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto which shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the predecessor trustee with respect to the Securities of any series as to which the predecessor trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the predecessor trustee, and shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such trustees co-trustees of the same trust and that each such trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts under separate indentures.

No successor trustee with respect to any series of Securities shall accept appointment as provided in this Section 6.11 unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and eligible under the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

Upon acceptance of appointment by any successor trustee as provided in this Section 6.11, the Issuer shall deliver notice thereof to the Holders of Securities of each series affected, by delivering such notice to such Holders at their addresses as they shall appear on the Security register. If the acceptance of appointment is substantially contemporaneous with the resignation, then the notice called for by the preceding sentence may be combined with the notice called for by Section 6.10. If the Issuer fails to deliver such notice within ten days after acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be given at the expense of the Issuer.

Section 6.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business of Trustee. Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to the corporate trust business of the Trustee, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder; provided, that such corporation shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and eligible under the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding.

In case, at the time such successor to the Trustee shall succeed to the trusts created by this Indenture, any of the Securities of any series shall have been authenticated but not delivered, any such successor to the Trustee may adopt the certificate of authentication of any predecessor trustee and deliver such Securities so authenticated; and, in case at that time any of the Securities of any series shall not have been authenticated, any successor to the Trustee may authenticate such Securities either in the name of any predecessor hereunder or in the name of the successor trustee; and in all such cases such certificate shall have the full force which it is anywhere in the Securities of such series or in this Indenture provided that the certificate of the Trustee shall have; provided, that the right to adopt the certificate of authentication of any predecessor trustee or to authenticate Securities of any series in the name of any predecessor trustee shall apply only to its successor or successors by merger, conversion or consolidation.

 

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Section 6.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Issuer. The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939. A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 to the extent included therein.

ARTICLE 7

CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

Section 7.01 Evidence of Action Taken by Securityholders. Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided by this Indenture to be given or taken by a specified percentage in principal amount of the Securityholders of any or all series may be embodied in and evidenced by one or more instruments of substantially similar tenor signed by such specified percentage of Securityholders in person or by agent duly appointed in writing; and, except as herein otherwise expressly provided, such action shall become effective when such instrument or instruments are delivered to the Trustee. Proof of execution of any instrument or of a writing appointing any such agent shall be sufficient for any purpose of this Indenture and (subject to Sections 6.01 and 6.02) conclusive in favor of the Trustee and the Issuer, if made in the manner provided in this Article.

Section 7.02 Proof of Execution of Instruments and of Holding of Securities. Subject to Sections 6.01 and 6.02, the execution of any instrument by a Holder or his agent or proxy may be proved in accordance with such reasonable rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the Trustee or in such manner as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee. The holding of Securities shall be proved by the Security register or by a certificate of the registrar thereof. The Issuer may set a record date for purposes of determining the identity of Holders of any series entitled to vote or consent to any action referred to in Section 7.01, which record date may be set at any time or from time to time by notice to the Trustee, for any date or dates (in the case of any adjournment or reconsideration) not more than 60 days nor less than five days prior to the proposed date of such vote or consent, and thereafter, notwithstanding any other provisions hereof, only Holders of such series of record on such record date shall be entitled to so vote or give such consent or revoke such vote or consent. Notice of such record date may be given before or after any request for any action referred to in Section 7.01 is made by the Issuer.

Section 7.03 Holders to Be Treated as Owners. The Issuer, the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or of the Trustee may deem and treat the Person in whose name any Security shall be registered upon the Security register for such series as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notation of ownership or other writing thereon) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of, and, subject to the provisions of this Indenture, interest on, such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Issuer nor the Trustee nor any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee shall be affected by any notice to the contrary. All such payments so made to any such Person, or upon his or her order, shall be valid, and, to the extent of the sum or sums so paid, effectual to satisfy and discharge the liability for moneys payable.

 

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Section 7.04 Securities Owned by Issuer Deemed Not Outstanding. In determining whether the Holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Outstanding Securities of any or all series have concurred in any direction, consent or waiver under this Indenture, Securities that are owned by the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities with respect to which such determination is being made or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities with respect to which such determination is being made shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that, for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities which the Trustee knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities so owned which have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not the Issuer or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities. In case of a dispute as to such right, the advice of counsel shall be full protection in respect of any decision made by the Trustee in accordance with such advice.

Section 7.05 Right of Revocation of Action Taken. At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 7.01, of the taking of any action by the Holders of the percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any or all series, as the case may be, specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any Holder of a Security the serial number of which is shown by the evidence to be included among the serial numbers of the Securities the Holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice at the Corporate Trust Office and upon proof of holding as provided in this Article, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security. Except as aforesaid, any such action taken by the Holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such Holder and upon all future Holders and owners of such Security and of any Securities issued in exchange or substitution therefor or on registration of transfer thereof, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon any such Security. Any action taken by the Holders of the percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any or all series, as the case may be, specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Issuer, the Trustee and the Holders of all the Securities affected by such action.

ARTICLE 8

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

Section 8.01 Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Securityholders. The Issuer, when authorized by a resolution of its Board of Directors, and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time, without the consent of any of the Securityholders, enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto in form satisfactory to the Trustee for one or more of the following purposes:

 

35


  (a)

to convey, transfer, assign, mortgage or pledge to the Trustee as security for the Securities of one or more series any property or assets;

 

  (b)

to evidence the succession of another Person to the Issuer, or successive successions, and the assumption by such successor of the covenants, agreements and obligations of the Issuer pursuant to, or to otherwise comply with, Article 9;

 

  (c)

to comply with the requirements of the Commission in order to effect or maintain the qualification of this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended;

 

  (d)

to add to the covenants of the Issuer such further covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions as its Board of Directors and the Trustee shall consider to be for the protection of the Holders of Securities, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an Event of Default permitting the enforcement of all or any of the several remedies provided in this Indenture as herein set forth; provided, that in respect of any such additional covenant, restriction, condition or provision such supplemental indenture may provide for a particular period of grace after default (which period may be shorter or longer than that allowed in the case of other defaults) or may provide for an immediate enforcement upon such an Event of Default or may limit the remedies available to the Trustee upon such an Event of Default or may limit the right of the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series to waive such an Event of Default;

 

  (e)

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, or to conform this Indenture or any supplemental indenture to the description of the Securities set forth in any prospectus, prospectus supplement or offering memorandum related to such series of Securities;

 

  (f)

to provide for or add guarantors for the Securities of one or more series;

 

  (g)

to establish the form or terms of Securities of any series as permitted by Sections 2.01 and 2.03;

 

  (h)

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one trustee, pursuant to the requirements of Section 6.11;

 

36


  (i)

to add to, change or eliminate any of the provisions of this Indenture in respect of one or more series of Securities; provided that any such addition, change or elimination shall (A) not (i) apply to any Security of any series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefit of such provision nor (ii) modify the rights of the Holder of any such Security with respect to such provision or (B) shall become effective only when there is no Security described in clause (A)(i) Outstanding;

 

  (j)

to make any change to the Securities of any series so long as no Securities of such series are Outstanding; and

 

  (k)

to make any other change that does not adversely affect the interests of the Holders of the Securities in any material respect.

The Trustee shall join with the Issuer in the execution of any such supplemental indenture, to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations which may be therein contained and to accept the conveyance, transfer, assignment, mortgage or pledge of any property thereunder, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture which affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

Any supplemental indenture authorized by the provisions of this Section may be executed without the consent of the Holders of any of the Securities at the time Outstanding, notwithstanding any of the provisions of Section 8.02.

Section 8.02 Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders. With the consent (evidenced as provided in Article 7) of the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities at the time Outstanding of one or more series affected by such supplemental indenture (voting as separate series), the Issuer, when authorized by a resolution of the Board of Directors, and the Trustee may, from time to time and at any time, enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Holders of the Securities of each such consenting series; provided, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the Holder of each Security so affected, (a) extend the final maturity of any Security, or reduce the principal amount thereof, or reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest thereon, or reduce any amount payable on redemption thereof, or make the principal thereof (including any amount in respect of original issue discount) or interest thereon payable in any currency other than that provided in the Securities or in accordance with the terms thereof, or reduce the amount of the principal of an Original Issue Discount Security that would be due and payable upon an acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01 or the amount thereof provable in bankruptcy pursuant to Section 5.02, or (b) waive a continuing default in the payment of principal of any Security or interest thereon, other than any such default in payment that resulted solely from such acceleration, or change a provision related to the waiver of past defaults or impair the right of any Securityholder to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after the Stated Maturity or the date of redemption or conversion of any Security or, if the Securities provide therefor, any right of repayment at the option of the Securityholder, or (c) modify any of the provisions of this section except to increase any required percentage or to provide that certain other provisions cannot be modified

 

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or waived without the consent of the Holder of each Security so affected, or (d) make any change that adversely affects the right to convert or exchange any Security into or for Common Stock or other securities, cash or other property in accordance with the terms of such Security or (e) reduce the aforesaid percentage of Securities of any series, the consent of the Holders of which is required for any such supplemental indenture or the consent of Holders of which is required for any modification, amendment or waiver of compliance with certain provisions of this Indenture or certain defaults hereunder and their consequences provided for in this Indenture.

A supplemental indenture which changes or eliminates any covenant, Event of Default or other provision of this Indenture (1) that has been expressly included solely for the benefit of one or more particular series of Securities, if any, or (2) which modifies the rights of Holders of Securities of one or more series with respect to any covenant, Event of Default or provision, shall be deemed not to affect the rights under this Indenture of the Holders of Securities of any other series with respect to which such covenant, Event of Default or other provision has not been included or so modified.

Upon the request of the Issuer, accompanied by a Board Resolution authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the filing with the Trustee of evidence of the consent of Securityholders as aforesaid and other documents, if any, required by Section 7.01, the Trustee shall join with the Issuer in the execution of such supplemental indenture unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion, but shall not be obligated to, enter into such supplemental indenture.

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Securityholders under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such consent shall approve the substance thereof.

Promptly after the execution by the Issuer and the Trustee of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall give a notice thereof to the Holders of then Outstanding Securities of each series affected thereby, by delivering a notice thereof, and in each case such notice shall set forth in general terms the substance of such supplemental indenture. Any failure of the Trustee to deliver such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture.

Section 8.03 Effect of Supplemental Indenture. Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions hereof, this Indenture shall be and be deemed to be modified and amended in accordance therewith and the respective rights, limitations of rights, obligations, duties and immunities under this Indenture of the Trustee, the Issuer and the Holders of Securities of each series affected thereby shall thereafter be determined, exercised and enforced hereunder subject in all respects to such modifications and amendments, and all the terms and conditions of any such supplemental indenture shall be and be deemed to be part of the terms and conditions of this Indenture for any and all purposes.

Section 8.04 Documents to Be Given to Trustee. The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Sections 6.01 and 6.02, may receive an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article 8 complies with the applicable provisions of this Indenture.

 

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Section 8.05 Notation on Securities in Respect of Supplemental Indentures. Securities of any series authenticated and delivered after the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article may bear a notation in form approved by the Trustee for such series as to any matter provided for by such supplemental indenture or as to any action taken by Securityholders. If the Issuer or the Trustee shall so determine, new Securities of any series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Trustee and the Board of Directors, to any modification of this Indenture contained in any such supplemental indenture may be prepared by the Issuer, authenticated by the Trustee and delivered in exchange for the Securities of such series then Outstanding.

ARTICLE 9

CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, SALE OR CONVEYANCE

Section 9.01 Issuer May Consolidate, Etc., on Certain Terms. The Issuer shall not consolidate with or merge into any other Person (in a transaction in which the Issuer is not the surviving corporation) or convey, transfer or lease its properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any Person, unless (a) the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Issuer is merged or the Person which acquires by conveyance or transfer, or which leases, the properties and assets of the Issuer substantially as an entirety (i) shall be a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust, (ii) shall be organized and validly existing under the laws of the United States of America, any State thereof or the District of Columbia and (iii) shall expressly assume, by an indenture supplemental hereto, executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form satisfactory to the Trustee, the due and punctual payment of the principal, interest on and any Additional Amounts with respect to all the Securities and the performance or observance of every covenant of this Indenture on the part of the Issuer to be performed, by supplemental indenture satisfactory in form to the Trustee, executed and delivered to the Trustee, by the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Issuer shall have been merged or by the Person which shall have acquired the Issuer’s assets; (b) immediately after giving effect to such transaction, no Event of Default, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time or both, would become an Event of Default, shall have happened and be continuing; and (c) the Issuer has delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that such consolidation, merger, conveyance, transfer or lease and, if a supplemental indenture is required in connection with such transaction, such supplemental indenture comply with this Article and that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to such transaction have been complied with.

The restrictions in this Section 9.01 shall not apply to (i) the merger or consolidation of the Issuer with one of its affiliates, if the Board of Directors determines in good faith that the purpose of such transaction is principally to change the Issuer’s State of incorporation or convert the Issuer’s form of organization to another form, or (ii) the merger of the Issuer with or into a single direct or indirect wholly owned Subsidiary.

 

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Section 9.02 Successor Issuer Substituted. Upon any consolidation of the Issuer with, or merger of the Issuer into, any other Person or any conveyance, transfer or lease of the properties and assets of the Issuer substantially as an entirety in accordance with Section 9.01, the successor Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Issuer is merged or to which such conveyance, transfer or lease is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Issuer under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor Person had been named as the Issuer herein, and thereafter, except in the case of a lease, the predecessor Person shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, lease or conveyance, such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Securities thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate.

ARTICLE 10

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE; UNCLAIMED MONEYS

Section 10.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture; Defeasance. (a) If at any time

 

  (i)

the Issuer shall have paid or caused to be paid the principal of and interest on and any Additional Amounts with respect to all the Securities of any series Outstanding hereunder (other than Securities of such series which have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09) as and when the same shall have become due and payable, or

 

  (ii)

the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee for cancellation all Securities of any series theretofore authenticated (other than any Securities of such series which shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09); or

 

  (iii)

in the case of any series of Securities the exact amount (including the currency of payment) of principal of and interest and Additional Amounts due on which on the dates referred to in clause (B) below can be determined at the time of making the deposit referred to in such clause,

 

  (A)

all the Securities of such series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation shall have become due and payable, or are by their terms to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year in accordance with their terms under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption, and

 

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  (B)

the Issuer shall have irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds the entire amount (i) in the case of any series of Securities the payments on which may only be made in Dollars, in Dollars (other than moneys repaid by the Trustee or any paying agent to the Issuer in accordance with Section 10.04) and/or U.S. Government Obligations maturing as to principal and interest in such amounts and at such times as will insure the availability of cash in such currency, or (ii) in the case of any series of Securities the payments on which may only be made in a Foreign Currency, in such Foreign Currency (other than moneys repaid by the Trustee or any paying agent to the Issuer in accordance with Section 10.04) and/or Foreign Government Obligations maturing as to principal and interest in such amounts and at such times as will insure the availability of cash in such currency, in each case sufficient to pay on any subsequent Interest Payment Date all interest due on such Interest Payment Date on the Securities of such series and to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of such series (in each case other than any Securities of such series which shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09) not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal, interest and Additional Amounts due or to become due to such date of maturity, as the case may be,

and if, in a case described in Section 10.01(a)(iii)(B), the Issuer shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Issuer, including amounts due the Trustee pursuant to Section 6.06, with respect to Securities of such series, then this Indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to Securities of such series (except as to (1) rights of registration of transfer, conversion and exchange of Securities of such series and the Issuer’s right of optional redemption, (2) substitution of mutilated, defaced, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, (3) rights of Holders of Securities to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(a)(iii)(B), payments of principal thereof and interest thereon, upon the original stated due dates therefor (but not upon acceleration) and remaining rights of the Holders to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(a)(iii)(B), sinking fund payments, if any, (4) the rights (including the Trustee’s rights under Section 10.05) and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Trustee’s obligations under Sections 10.02 and 10.04 and (5) the obligations of the Issuer under Section 3.02), and the Trustee, on demand of the Issuer accompanied by an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel which complies with Section 11.05 and at the cost and expense of the Issuer, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging such satisfaction of and discharging this Indenture with respect to such series. The Issuer agrees to reimburse the Trustee for any costs or expenses thereafter reasonably and properly incurred and to compensate the Trustee for any services thereafter reasonably and properly rendered by the Trustee in connection with this Indenture or the Securities of such series.

 

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  (b)

The following subsection shall apply to the Securities of each series unless specifically otherwise provided in a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or indenture supplemental hereto pursuant to Section 2.03. In addition to the right to discharge of the Indenture pursuant to subsection (a) above, the Issuer, at its option and at any time, by written notice by an officer delivered to the Trustee, may elect to have all of its obligations with respect to all Outstanding Securities of a series discharged (“Legal Defeasance”), such discharge to be effective on the date that the conditions set forth in clauses (i) through (iv) and (vi) of Section 10.01(d) are satisfied, and thereafter the Issuer shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire Debt on all the Securities of such series, and satisfied all its other obligations under such Securities and this Indenture insofar as such Securities are concerned and this Indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to Securities of such series (except as to (1) rights of registration of transfer, conversion and exchange of Securities of such series, (2) substitution of apparently mutilated, defaced, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, (3) rights of Holders of Securities to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(d)(i), payments of principal thereof, interest thereon and any Additional Amounts, upon the original Stated Maturities therefor (but not upon acceleration) and remaining rights of the Holders to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(d)(i), sinking fund payments, if any, (4) the rights (including the Trustee’s rights under Section 10.05) and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Trustee’s obligations with respect to the Securities of such series under Sections 10.02 and 10.04 and (5) the obligations of the Issuer under Section 3.02).

 

  (c)

The following subsection shall apply to the Securities of each series unless specifically otherwise provided in a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or indenture supplemental hereto provided pursuant to Section 2.03. In addition to the right to discharge of the Indenture pursuant to subsection (a) and to Legal Defeasance pursuant to subsection (b), above, the Issuer, at its option and at any time, by written notice executed by an officer delivered to the Trustee, may elect to have its obligations under any covenant contained in this Indenture or in the Board Resolution or supplemental indenture relating to such series pursuant to Section 2.03 discharged with respect to all Outstanding Securities of a series, this Indenture and any indentures supplemental to this Indenture with respect to such series (“Covenant Defeasance”), such discharge to be effective on the date the conditions set forth in clauses (i) through (iii) and (v) through (vi) of Section 10.01(d) are satisfied, and such Securities shall thereafter be deemed to be not “Outstanding” for the purposes of any direction, waiver, consent or declaration of Securityholders (and any consequences thereof) in connection with such covenants, but shall continue to be “Outstanding” for all other purposes under this Indenture. For this purpose, such Covenant Defeasance means that, with respect to the Outstanding Securities of a series, the Issuer may omit to comply with and shall have no liability in respect of any term, condition or limitation set forth in any such covenant, whether directly or indirectly, by reason of any reference elsewhere herein to any such covenant or by reason of reference

 

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  in any such covenant to any other provision herein or in any other document and such omission to comply shall not constitute an Event of Default under Section 5.01(c) or otherwise, but except as specified in this Section 10.01(c), the remainder of the Issuer’s obligations under the Securities of such series, this Indenture, and any indentures supplemental to this Indenture with respect to such series shall be unaffected thereby.

 

  (d)

The following shall be the conditions to the application of Legal Defeasance (to the extent set forth in subsection (b)), or Covenant Defeasance (to the extent set forth in subsection (c)) to the Securities of the applicable series:

 

  (i)

the Issuer irrevocably deposits or causes to be deposited in trust with the Trustee or, at the option of the Trustee, with a trustee satisfactory to the Trustee and the Company under the terms of an irrevocable trust agreement in form and substance satisfactory to the Trustee, (i) in the case of any series of Securities the payments on which may only be made in Dollars, Dollars (other than moneys repaid by the Trustee or any paying agent to the Issuer in accordance with Section 10.04) and/or U.S. Government Obligations maturing as to principal and interest in such amounts and at such times as will insure the availability of cash in such currency, or (ii) in the case of any series of Securities the payments on which may only be made in a Foreign Currency, such Foreign Currency (other than moneys repaid by the Trustee or any paying agent to the Issuer in accordance with Section 10.04) and/or Foreign Government Obligations maturing as to principal and interest in such amounts and at such times as will insure the availability of cash in such currency, in each case sufficient to pay on any subsequent Interest Payment Date all interest due on such Interest Payment Date on the Securities of such series and to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of such series (in each case other than any Securities of such series which shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09) not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal, interest and Additional Amounts due or to become due to such date of maturity, as the case may be;

 

  (ii)

the Issuer delivers to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent specified herein relating to Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance, as the case may be, have been complied with, and an Opinion of Counsel to the same effect;

 

  (iii)

no Event of Default under subsection (a), (b), (d) or (e) of Section 5.01 shall have occurred and be continuing, and no event which with notice or lapse of time or both would become such an Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing, on the date of such deposit;

 

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  (iv)

in the event of an election for Legal Defeasance under subsection (b), the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that (A) the Issuer has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling or (B) since the date of this instrument, there has been a change in the applicable Federal income tax law, in either case (A) or (B) to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the Holders of such Securities will not recognize gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge to be effected with respect to such Securities and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge were not to occur;

 

  (v)

in the event of an election for Covenant Defeasance under subsection (c), the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Holders of such Securities will not recognize gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and Covenant Defeasance to be effected with respect to such Securities and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amount, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such deposit and Covenant Defeasance were not to occur; and

 

  (vi)

notwithstanding any other provisions of this subsection (d), such defeasance shall be effected in compliance with any additional or substitute terms, conditions or limitations that may be imposed on the Issuer pursuant to Section 2.03.

After such irrevocable deposit made pursuant to this Section 10.01(d) and satisfaction of the other applicable conditions set forth in this subsection (d), the Trustee upon request shall execute proper instruments acknowledging the discharge of the Issuer’s obligations pursuant to this Section 10.01.

Section 10.02 Application by Trustee of Funds Deposited for Payment of Securities. Subject to Section 10.04, all moneys deposited with the Trustee (or other trustee) pursuant to Section 10.01 shall be held in trust and applied by it to the payment, either directly or through any paying agent (including the Issuer acting as its own paying agent), to the Holders of the particular Securities of such series for the payment or redemption of which such moneys have been deposited with the Trustee, of all sums due and to become due thereon for principal and interest; but such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

 

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Section 10.03 Repayment of Moneys Held by Paying Agent. In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to Securities of any series, all moneys then held by any paying agent under the provisions of this Indenture with respect to such series of Securities shall, upon demand of the Issuer, be repaid to it or paid to the Trustee and thereupon such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys.

Section 10.04 Return of Moneys Held by Trustee and Paying Agent Unclaimed for Two Years. Any moneys deposited with or paid to the Trustee or any paying agent for the payment of the principal of, interest on or additional amounts in respect of any Security of any series and not applied but remaining unclaimed for two years after the date upon which such principal, interest or additional amount shall have become due and payable, shall be repaid to the Issuer by the Trustee for such series or such paying agent, and the Holder of the Securities of such series shall thereafter look only to the Issuer for any payment which such Holder may be entitled to collect, and all liability of the Trustee or any paying agent with respect to such moneys shall thereupon cease.

Section 10.05 Indemnity for U.S. Government Obligations and Foreign Government Obligations. The Issuer shall pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against the U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Section 10.01 or the principal or interest received in respect of such obligations.

ARTICLE 11

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

Section 11.01 No Recourse. No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of this Indenture, or of any Security, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, shall be had against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, past, present or future as such, of the Issuer or of any predecessor or successor corporation, either directly or through the Issuer or any such predecessor or successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that this Indenture and the obligations issued hereunder are solely corporate obligations, and that no such personal liability whatever shall attach to, or is or shall be incurred by, the incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors as such, of the Issuer or of any predecessor or successor corporation, or any of them, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom; and that any and all such personal liability of every name and nature, either at common law or in equity or by constitution or statute, of, and any and all such rights and claims against, every such incorporator, stockholder, officer or director as such, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom, are hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issuance of such Securities.

 

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Section 11.02 Provisions of Indenture for the Sole Benefit of Parties and Holders of Securities. Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, expressed or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any person, firm or corporation, other than the parties hereto and their successors and the Holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under this Indenture or under any covenant or provision herein contained, all such covenants and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and their successors and of the Holders of the Securities.

Section 11.03 Successors and Assigns of Issuer Bound by Indenture. All the covenants, stipulations, promises and agreements contained in this Indenture by or on behalf of the Issuer shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

Section 11.04 Notices and Demands on Issuer, Trustee and Holders of Securities. Any notice or demand which by any provision of this Indenture is required or permitted to be given or served by the Trustee or by the Holders of Securities to or on the Issuer may be delivered, given or served by being deposited postage prepaid, first-class mail (except as otherwise specifically provided herein) addressed (until another address of the Issuer is filed by the Issuer with the Trustee) to Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 6400 Westwind Way, Suite A, Crestwood, Kentucky 40014, Attn: Chief Financial Officer. Any notice, direction, request or demand by the Issuer or any Holder of Securities to or upon the Trustee shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given or made, for all purposes, if given or made at             ,             , Attn:             .

Where this Indenture provides for notice to Holders of Securities, such notice shall be sufficiently given (unless otherwise herein expressly provided) if in writing and mailed, first-class postage prepaid, to each Holder entitled thereto, at his, her or its last address as it appears in the Security register. In case, by reason of the suspension of or irregularities in regular mail service, it shall be impracticable to mail notice of any event to Holders of Securities when said notice is required to be given pursuant to any provision of this Indenture or of the Securities, then any manner of giving such notice as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee shall be deemed to be a sufficient giving of such notice.

In case, by reason of the suspension of or irregularities in regular mail service, it shall be impracticable to mail notice to the Issuer when such notice is required to be given pursuant to any provision of this Indenture, then any manner of giving such notice as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee shall be deemed to be a sufficient giving of such notice.

Where this Indenture provides for notice of any event to a Holder of a Global Security, such notice shall be sufficiently given if given to the Depositary for such Security (or its designee), pursuant to the Applicable Procedures of the Depositary, not later than the latest date, if any, and not earlier than the earliest date, if any, prescribed for the giving of such notice.

Neither the failure to give notice, nor any defect in any notice so given, to any particular Holder of a Security shall affect the sufficiency of such notice with respect to other Holders of Securities given as provided above.

 

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Where this Indenture provides for notice in any manner, such notice may be waived in writing by the Person entitled to receive such notice either before or after the event, and such waiver shall be the equivalent of such notice. Waivers of notice by Holders shall be filed with the Trustee, but such filing shall not be a condition precedent to the validity of any action taken in reliance upon such waiver.

Section 11.05 Officers Certificates and Opinions of Counsel; Statements to Be Contained Therein. Upon any application or demand by the Issuer to the Trustee to take any action under any of the provisions of this Indenture, the Issuer shall furnish to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with and an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or demand as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or demand, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

Each certificate or opinion provided for in this Indenture and delivered to the Trustee with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture shall include (a) a statement that the person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition, (b) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based, (c) a statement that, in the opinion of such person, he or she has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him or her to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with and (d) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

Any certificate, statement or opinion of an officer of the Issuer may be based, insofar as it relates to legal matters, upon a certificate or opinion of or representations by counsel, unless such officer knows that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his or her certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous. Any certificate, statement or opinion of counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to factual matters, information with respect to which is in the possession of the Issuer, upon the certificate, statement or opinion of or representations by an officer or officers of the Issuer, unless such counsel knows that the certificate, statement or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his or her certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous.

Any certificate, statement or opinion of an officer of the Issuer or of counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to accounting matters, upon a certificate or opinion of or representations by an accountant or firm of accountants in the employ of the Issuer, unless such officer or counsel, as the case may be, knows that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to the accounting matters upon which his or her certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous.

Any certificate or opinion of any independent firm of public accountants filed with and directed to the Trustee shall contain a statement that such firm is independent.

 

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Section 11.06 Payments Due on Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays. If the date of maturity of interest on or principal of the Securities of any series or the date fixed for redemption or repayment of any such Security, or the last day on which a Holder has the right to convert any Security, shall not be a Business Day, then payment of interest or principal, or any conversion, need not be made on such date, but may be made on the next succeeding Business Day with the same force and effect as if made on the date of maturity or the date fixed for redemption or on such last day for conversion, and no interest shall accrue for the period after such date.

Section 11.07 Conflict of Any Provision of Indenture With Trust Indenture Act of 1939. If and to the extent that any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with another provision included in this Indenture by operation of Sections 310 to 317, inclusive, of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, such incorporated provision shall control.

Section 11.08 New York Law to Govern. This Indenture and each Security shall be deemed to be a contract under the laws of the State of New York, and for all purposes shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of such State without regard to any principle of conflict of laws that would require or permit the application of the laws of any other jurisdiction, except as may otherwise be required by mandatory provisions of law.

Section 11.09 Counterparts. This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which shall be an original; but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument.

Section 11.10 Effect of Headings. The Article and Section headings herein and the Table of Contents are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

Section 11.11 Actions by Successor. Any act or proceeding by any provision of this Indenture authorized or required to be done or performed by any board of directors or its equivalent, committee or officer of the Issuer shall and may be done and performed with like force and effect by the corresponding board, committee or officer of any corporation that shall at the time be the lawful successor of the Issuer.

Section 11.12 Severability. In case any one or more of the provisions contained in this Indenture or in the Securities of any series shall for any reason be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any respect, such invalidity, illegality or unenforceability shall not affect any other provisions of this Indenture or of such Securities, but this Indenture and such Securities shall be construed as if such invalid or illegal or unenforceable provision had never been contained herein or therein.

ARTICLE 12

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUNDS

Section 12.01 Applicability of Article. The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to the Securities of any series which are redeemable before their maturity or to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified, as contemplated by Section 2.03 for Securities of such series.

 

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Section 12.02 Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions. Notice of redemption to the Holders of Securities of any series to be redeemed as a whole or in part at the option of the Issuer shall be given by providing notice of such redemption at least 30 days and not more than 60 days prior to the date fixed for redemption to such Holders of Securities of such series at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security register. Any notice which is given in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the Holder receives the notice. Failure to give notice or any defect in the notice to the Holder of any Security of a series designated for redemption as a whole or in part shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Security of such series.

The notice of redemption to each such Holder shall specify the principal amount of each Security of such series held by such Holder to be redeemed, the date fixed for redemption, the redemption price, the place or places of payment, that payment will be made upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that such redemption is pursuant to the mandatory or optional sinking fund, or both, if such be the case, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in such notice and that on and after said date interest thereon or on the portions thereof to be redeemed will cease to accrue and shall also specify, if applicable, the conversion price then in effect and the date on which the right to convert such Securities or the portions thereof to be redeemed will expire. In case any Security of a series is to be redeemed in part only, the notice of redemption shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed and shall state that on and after the date fixed for redemption, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

The notice of redemption of Securities of any series to be redeemed at the option of the Issuer shall be given by the Issuer or, at the Issuer’s request, by the Trustee in the name and at the expense of the Issuer.

On or before the redemption date specified in the notice of redemption given as provided in this Section, the Issuer will deposit with the Trustee or with one or more paying agents (or, if the Issuer is acting as its own paying agent, set aside, segregate and hold in trust as provided in Section 3.04) an amount of money sufficient to redeem on the redemption date all the Securities of such series so called for redemption (other than those Securities theretofore surrendered for conversion into Common Stock in accordance with their terms) at the appropriate redemption price, together with accrued interest to the date fixed for redemption. If any Security called for redemption is converted pursuant hereto and in accordance with the terms thereof, any money deposited with the Trustee or any paying agent or so segregated and held in trust for the redemption of such Security shall be paid to the Issuer upon the Issuer’s request, or, if then held by the Issuer, shall be discharged from such trust. The Issuer will deliver to the Trustee at least 10 days prior to the date the notice required to be delivered to the Holders is to be sent (unless a shorter time period shall be acceptable to the Trustee) an Officer’s Certificate (which need not comply with Section 11.05) stating the aggregate principal amount of Securities to be redeemed. In case of a redemption at the election of the Issuer prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption, the Issuer shall deliver to the Trustee, prior to the giving of any notice of redemption to Holders pursuant to this Section, an Officer’s Certificate stating that such restriction has been complied with.

 

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If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select, in such manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair, Securities of such series to be redeemed in whole or in part. Securities may be redeemed in part in multiples equal to the minimum authorized denomination for Securities of such series or any multiple thereof. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Issuer in writing of the Securities of such series selected for redemption and, in the case of any Securities of such series selected for partial redemption, the principal amount thereof to be redeemed. For all purposes of this Indenture, unless the context otherwise requires, all provisions relating to the redemption of Securities of any series shall relate, in the case of any Security redeemed or to be redeemed only in part, to the portion of the principal amount of such Security which has been or is to be redeemed. If any Security selected for partial redemption is surrendered for conversion after such selection, the converted portion of such Security shall be deemed (so far as may be possible) to be the portion selected for redemption.

Section 12.03 Payment of Securities Called for Redemption. If notice of redemption has been given as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption, and on and after said date (unless the Issuer shall default in the payment of such Securities at the redemption price, together with interest accrued to said date) interest on the Securities or portions of Securities so called for redemption shall cease to accrue, and such Securities shall cease from and after the date fixed for redemption to be convertible into Common Stock (to the extent otherwise convertible in accordance with their terms), if applicable, and cease to be entitled to any benefit or security under this Indenture, and except as provided in the paragraph below, the Holders thereof shall have no right in respect of such Securities except the right to receive the redemption price thereof and unpaid interest to the date fixed for redemption. On presentation and surrender of such Securities at a place of payment specified in said notice, said Securities or the specified portions thereof shall be paid and redeemed by the Issuer at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption; provided, that payment of interest becoming due on or prior to the date fixed for redemption shall be payable to the Holders of such Securities registered as such on the relevant record date subject to the terms and provisions of Sections 2.03 and 2.07 hereof.

If any Security called for redemption shall not be so paid upon surrender thereof for redemption, the principal shall, until paid or duly provided for, bear interest from the date fixed for redemption at the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of an Original Issue Discount Security) borne by such Security and, if applicable, such Security shall remain convertible into Common Stock until the principal of such Security shall have been paid or duly provided for.

Upon presentation of any Security redeemed in part only, the Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver to or on the order of the Holder thereof, at the expense of the Issuer, a new Security or Securities of such series, of authorized denominations, in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

 

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Section 12.04 Exclusion of Certain Securities from Eligibility for Selection for Redemption. Securities shall be excluded from eligibility for selection for redemption if they are identified by registration and certificate number in an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee at least 40 days prior to the last date on which notice of redemption may be given as being owned of record and beneficially by, and not pledged or hypothecated by either (a) the Issuer or (b) an entity specifically identified in such written statement as directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer.

Section 12.05 Mandatory and Optional Sinking Funds. The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of the Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment”, and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of the Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”. The date on which a sinking fund payment is to be made is herein referred to as the “sinking fund payment date”.

In lieu of making all or any part of any mandatory sinking fund payment with respect to any series of Securities in cash, the Issuer may at its option (a) deliver to the Trustee Securities of such series theretofore purchased or otherwise acquired (except upon redemption pursuant to the mandatory sinking fund) by the Issuer or receive credit for Securities of such series (not previously so credited) theretofore purchased or otherwise acquired (except as aforesaid) by the Issuer and delivered to the Trustee for cancellation pursuant to Section 2.10 and, if applicable, receive credit for Securities (not previously so credited) converted into Common Stock and so delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, (b) receive credit for optional sinking fund payments (not previously so credited) made pursuant to this Section, or (c) receive credit for Securities of such series (not previously so credited) redeemed by the Issuer through any optional redemption provision contained in the terms of such series. Securities so delivered or credited shall be received or credited by the Trustee at the sinking fund redemption price specified in such Securities.

On or before the 60th day next preceding each sinking fund payment date for any series, the Issuer will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate (which need not contain the statements required by Section 11.05) (a) specifying the portion of the mandatory sinking fund payment to be satisfied by payment of cash and the portion to be satisfied by credit of Securities of such series and the basis for such credit, (b) stating that none of the Securities of such series for which credit will be taken has theretofore been so credited, (c) stating that no defaults in the payment of interest or Events of Default with respect to such series have occurred (which have not been waived or cured) and are continuing and (d) stating whether or not the Issuer intends to exercise its right to make an optional sinking fund payment with respect to such series and, if so, specifying the amount of such optional sinking fund payment which the Issuer intends to pay on or before the next succeeding sinking fund payment date. Any Securities of such series to be credited and required to be delivered to the Trustee in order for the Issuer to be entitled to credit therefor as aforesaid which have not theretofore been delivered to the Trustee shall be delivered for cancellation pursuant to Section 2.10 to the Trustee with such Officer’s Certificate (or reasonably promptly thereafter if acceptable to the Trustee). Such Officer’s Certificate shall be irrevocable and upon its receipt by the Trustee the Issuer shall become unconditionally obligated to make all the cash payments or payments therein referred to, if any, on or before the next succeeding sinking fund payment date. Failure of the Issuer, on or before any such 60th day, to deliver such Officer’s Certificate and Securities specified in this paragraph, if any, shall not constitute a default but shall constitute, on and as of such date, the irrevocable election of the Issuer that the mandatory sinking fund payment for such series due on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date shall be paid entirely in cash without the option to deliver or credit Securities of such series in respect thereof.

 

51


If the sinking fund payment or payments (mandatory or optional or both) to be made in cash on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date plus any unused balance of any preceding sinking fund payments made in cash shall exceed $50,000 (or the equivalent thereof in any Foreign Currency or a lesser sum in Dollars or in any Foreign Currency if the Issuer shall so request) with respect to the Securities of any particular series, such cash shall be applied on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date to the redemption of Securities of such series at the sinking fund redemption price together with accrued interest to the date fixed for redemption. If such amount shall be $50,000 (or the equivalent thereof in any Foreign Currency) or less and the Issuer makes no such request then it shall be carried over until a sum in excess of $50,000 (or the equivalent thereof in any Foreign Currency) is available, which delay in accordance with this paragraph shall not be a default or breach of the obligation to make such payment. The Trustee shall select, in the manner provided in Section 12.02, for redemption on such sinking fund payment date a sufficient principal amount of Securities of such series to which such cash may be applied, as nearly as may be, and shall (if requested in writing by the Issuer) inform the Issuer of the serial numbers of the Securities of such series (or portions thereof) so selected. The Trustee, in the name and at the expense of the Issuer (or the Issuer, if it shall so request the Trustee in writing), shall cause notice of redemption of the Securities of such series to be given in substantially the manner provided in Section 12.02 (and with the effect provided in Section 12.03) for the redemption of Securities of such series in part at the option of the Issuer. The amount of any sinking fund payments not so applied or allocated to the redemption of Securities of such series shall be added to the next cash sinking fund payment for such series and, together with such payment, shall be applied in accordance with the provisions of this Section. Any and all sinking fund moneys held on the stated maturity date of the Securities of any particular series (or earlier, if such maturity is accelerated), which are not held for the payment or redemption of particular Securities of such series, shall be applied, together with other moneys, if necessary, sufficient for the purpose, to the payment of the principal of, and interest on, the Securities of such series at maturity. The Issuer’s obligation to make a mandatory or optional sinking fund payment shall automatically be reduced by an amount equal to the sinking fund redemption price allocable to any Securities or portions thereof called for redemption pursuant to the preceding paragraph on any sinking fund payment date and converted into Common Stock in accordance with the terms of such Securities; provided that, if the Trustee is not the conversion agent for the Securities, the Issuer or such conversion agent shall give the Trustee written notice on or prior to the date fixed for redemption of the principal amount of Securities or portions thereof so converted.

On or before each sinking fund payment date, the Issuer shall pay to the Trustee in cash or shall otherwise provide for the payment of all interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption on Securities to be redeemed on such sinking fund payment date.

The Trustee shall not redeem or cause to be redeemed any Securities of a series with sinking fund moneys or give any notice of redemption of Securities for such series by operation of the sinking fund during the continuance of a default in payment of interest on such Securities or of any Event of Default except that, where providing notice of redemption of any Securities shall theretofore have been made, the Trustee shall redeem or cause to be redeemed such

 

52


Securities, provided that it shall have received from the Issuer a sum sufficient for such redemption. Except as aforesaid, any moneys in the sinking fund for such series at the time when any such default or Event of Default shall occur, and any moneys thereafter paid into the sinking fund, shall, during the continuance of such default or Event of Default, be deemed to have been collected under Article 5 and held for the payment of all such Securities. In case such Event of Default shall have been waived as provided in Section 5.10, or the default cured on or before the 60th day preceding the sinking fund payment date in any year, such moneys shall thereafter be applied on such sinking fund payment date in accordance with this Section to the redemption of such Securities.

[Signature pages follow]

 

53


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed as of             .

 

APELLIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
By:  

    

 

  Name:
  Title:
Attest:
By:  

 

  Name:
  Title:
                    , Trustee
By:  

    

 

  Name:
  Title:
EX-4.4

Exhibit 4.4

APELLIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

and

 

 

Trustee

INDENTURE

Dated as of                     

SUBORDINATED DEBT SECURITIES

 


CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE 1

 

Section of Trust Indenture Act

of 1939, as amended

   Section of
Indenture
  

310(a)

   6.09

310(b)

   6.08

6.10

310(c)

   Inapplicable

311(a)

   6.13

311(b)

   6.13

311(c)

   Inapplicable

312(a)

   4.01

4.04

312(b)

   4.04(c)
312(c)    4.04(c)

313(a)

   4.03

313(b)

   4.03

313(c)

   4.03

313(d)

   4.03

314(a)

   4.02

314(b)

   Inapplicable

314(c)

   2.04

8.04

9.01(c)

10.01(b)

11.05

314(d)

   Inapplicable

314(e)

   11.05

314(f)

   Inapplicable

315(a)

   6.01

6.02

315(b)

   5.11

315(c)

   6.01

315(d)

   6.01
     6.02

315(e)

   5.12

316(a)

   5.09

5.10

7.04

316(b)

   5.06

5.10

316(c)

   7.02

317(a)

   5.04

317(b)

   3.04

318(a)

   11.07

 

1 

This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

       Page  

ARTICLE 1

  DEFINITIONS      1  

Section 1.01

  Certain Terms Defined      1  

ARTICLE 2

  SECURITIES      7  

Section 2.01

  Forms Generally      7  

Section 2.02

  Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication      7  

Section 2.03

  Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series      8  

Section 2.04

  Authentication and Delivery of Securities      10  

Section 2.05

  Execution of Securities      12  

Section 2.06

  Certificate of Authentication      12  

Section 2.07

  Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest      12  

Section 2.08

  Registration, Transfer and Exchange      13  

Section 2.09

  Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities      15  

Section 2.10

  Cancellation of Securities; Destruction Thereof      16  

Section 2.11

  Temporary Securities      16  

ARTICLE 3

  COVENANTS OF THE ISSUER      16  

Section 3.01

  Payment of Principal and Interest      16  

Section 3.02

  Offices for Payments, Etc      17  

Section 3.03

  Appointment to Fill a Vacancy in Office of Trustee      17  

Section 3.04

  Paying Agents      17  

Section 3.05

  Written Statement to Trustee      18  

ARTICLE 4

  SECURITYHOLDERS LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE ISSUER AND THE TRUSTEE      18  

Section 4.01

  Issuer to Furnish Trustee Information as to Names and Addresses of Securityholders      18  

Section 4.02

  Reports by the Issuer      19  

Section 4.03

  Reports by the Trustee      19  

Section 4.04

  Preservation of Information; Communication with Securityholders      19  

ARTICLE 5

  REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT      19  

Section 5.01

  Event of Default Defined; Acceleration of Maturity; Waiver of Default      19  

Section 5.02

  Collection of Debt by Trustee; Trustee May Prove Debt      21  

Section 5.03

  Application of Proceeds      23  

Section 5.04

  Suits for Enforcement      24  

Section 5.05

  Restoration of Rights on Abandonment of Proceedings      24  

Section 5.06

  Limitations on Suits by Securityholders      24  

Section 5.07

  Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Institute Certain Suits      25  

Section 5.08

  Powers and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver of Default      25  

Section 5.09

  Control by Holders of Securities      26  

 

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Section 5.10

  Waiver of Past Defaults      26  

Section 5.11

  Trustee to Give Notice of Default      27  

Section 5.12

  Right of Court to Require Filing of Undertaking to Pay Costs      27  

ARTICLE 6

  CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE      27  

Section 6.01

  Duties and Responsibilities of the Trustee; During Default; Prior to Default      27  

Section 6.02

  Certain Rights of the Trustee      27  

Section 6.03

  Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals, Disposition of Securities or Application of Proceeds Thereof      29  

Section 6.04

  Trustee and Agents May Hold Securities; Collections, Etc      29  

Section 6.05

  Moneys Held by Trustee      29  

Section 6.06

  Compensation and Indemnification of Trustee and Its Prior Claim      30  

Section 6.07

  Right of Trustee to Rely on Officer’s Certificate, Etc      30  

Section 6.08

  Disqualification; Conflicting Interests      30  

Section 6.09

  Persons Eligible for Appointment as Trustee      30  

Section 6.10

  Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor Trustee      31  

Section 6.11

  Acceptance of Appointment by Successor Trustee      32  

Section 6.12

  Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business of Trustee      33  

Section 6.13

  Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Issuer      33  

ARTICLE 7

  CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS      33  

Section 7.01

  Evidence of Action Taken by Securityholders      33  

Section 7.02

  Proof of Execution of Instruments and of Holding of Securities      34  

Section 7.03

  Holders to Be Treated as Owners      34  

Section 7.04

  Securities Owned by Issuer Deemed Not Outstanding      34  

Section 7.05

  Right of Revocation of Action Taken      34  

ARTICLE 8

  SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES      35  

Section 8.01

  Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Securityholders      35  

Section 8.02

  Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders      36  

Section 8.03

  Effect of Supplemental Indenture      38  

Section 8.04

  Documents to Be Given to Trustee      38  

Section 8.05

  Notation on Securities in Respect of Supplemental Indentures      38  

ARTICLE 9

  CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, SALE OR CONVEYANCE      38  

Section 9.01

  Issuer May Consolidate, Etc., on Certain Terms      38  

Section 9.02

  Successor Issuer Substituted      39  

ARTICLE 10

  SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE; UNCLAIMED MONEYS      39  

Section 10.01

  Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture; Defeasance      39  

Section 10.02

  Application by Trustee of Funds Deposited for Payment of Securities      43  

Section 10.03

  Repayment of Moneys Held by Paying Agent      43  

Section 10.04

  Return of Moneys Held by Trustee and Paying Agent Unclaimed for Two Years      43  

 

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Section 10.05

  Indemnity for U.S. Government Obligations and Foreign Government Obligations      43  

ARTICLE 11

  MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS      44  

Section 11.01

  No Recourse      44  

Section 11.02

  Provisions of Indenture for the Sole Benefit of Parties and Holders of Securities      44  

Section 11.03

  Successors and Assigns of Issuer Bound by Indenture      44  

Section 11.04

  Notices and Demands on Issuer, Trustee and Holders of Securities      44  

Section 11.05

  Officer’s Certificates and Opinions of Counsel; Statements to Be Contained Therein      45  

Section 11.06

  Payments Due on Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays      46  

Section 11.07

  Conflict of Any Provision of Indenture With Trust Indenture Act of 1939      46  

Section 11.08

  New York Law to Govern      46  

Section 11.09

  Counterparts      47  

Section 11.10

  Effect of Headings      47  

Section 11.11

  Actions by Successor      47  

Section 11.12

  Severability      47  

ARTICLE 12

  REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUNDS      47  

Section 12.01

  Applicability of Article      47  

Section 12.02

  Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions      47  

Section 12.03

  Payment of Securities Called for Redemption      48  

Section 12.04

  Exclusion of Certain Securities from Eligibility for Selection for Redemption      49  

Section 12.05

  Mandatory and Optional Sinking Funds      49  

ARTICLE 13

  SUBORDINATION OF SECURITIES      51  

Section 13.01

  Agreement of Subordination      51  

Section 13.02

  Payments to Securityholders      52  

Section 13.03

  Subrogation of Securities      53  

Section 13.04

  Authorization by Securityholders      54  

Section 13.05

  Notice to Trustee      54  

Section 13.06

  Trustee’s Relation to Senior Indebtedness      55  

Section 13.07

  No Impairment of Subordination      55  

Section 13.08

  Rights of Trustee      55  

 

-iii-


THIS INDENTURE, dated as of between Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Issuer”), and                 , a      (the “Trustee”),

W I T N E S S E T H:

WHEREAS, the Issuer may from time to time duly authorize the issue of its unsecured subordinated debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series (the “Securities”) up to such principal amount or amounts as may from time to time be authorized in accordance with the terms of this Indenture;

WHEREAS, the Issuer has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide, among other things, for the authentication, delivery and administration of the Securities; and

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid indenture and agreement according to its terms have been done;

NOW, THEREFORE:

In consideration of the premises and the purchases of the Securities by the holders thereof, the Issuer and the Trustee mutually covenant and agree for the equal and proportionate benefit of the respective holders from time to time of the Securities as follows:

ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS

Section 1.01 Certain Terms Defined. The following terms (except as otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise clearly requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 or the definitions of which in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended are referred to in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, including terms defined therein by reference to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise clearly requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act of 1933, as amended, as in force at the date of this Indenture. All accounting terms used herein and not expressly defined shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and the term “generally accepted accounting principles” means such accounting principles as are generally accepted in the United States at the time of any computation. The words “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision. The terms defined in this Article have the meanings assigned to them in this Article and include the plural as well as the singular.

“Additional Amounts” means any additional amounts that are required by this Indenture or by any Security, under circumstances specified herein or therein, to be paid by the Issuer in respect of certain taxes, assessments or other governmental charges imposed on Holders specified therein and which are owing to such Holders.


Applicable Procedures” means, with respect to a Depositary, as to any matter at any time, the policies and procedures of such Depositary, if any, that are applicable to such matter at such time.

Board of Directors” means either the Board of Directors of the Issuer or any committee of such Board duly authorized to act on its behalf.

Board Resolution” means a copy of one or more resolutions, certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Issuer to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect, and delivered to the Trustee.

Business Day” means, with respect to any Security, a day that in the city (or in any of the cities, if more than one) in which amounts are payable, as specified in the form of such Security, is not a day on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law or regulation to close.

“Capital Stock” means (a) in the case of a corporation, corporate stock; (b) in the case of an association or business entity, any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated) of corporate stock; (c) in the case of a partnership or limited liability company, partnership interests (whether general or limited) or membership interests; and (d) any other interest or participation that confers on a Person the right to receive a share of the profits and losses of, or distributions of assets of, the issuing Person, but excluding from all of the foregoing any Debt securities convertible into Capital Stock, whether or not such Debt securities include any right of participation with Capital Stock.

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or if at any time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, then the body performing such duties on such date.

Common Stock” means shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, of the Issuer as the same exists at the date of execution and delivery of this Indenture or as such stock may be reconstituted from time to time.

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which the corporate trust business of the Trustee shall, at any particular time, be principally administered, which office is, at the date as of which this Indenture is dated, located at             .

Debt” of any Person means any debt for money borrowed which is created, assumed, incurred or guaranteed in any manner by such Person or for which such Person is otherwise responsible or liable, and shall expressly include any such guaranty thereof by such Person. For the purpose of computing the amount of the Debt of any Person there shall be excluded all Debt of such Person for the payment or redemption or satisfaction of which money or securities (or evidences of such Debt, if permitted under the terms of the instrument creating such Debt) in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the proper depositary, whether upon or prior to the maturity or the date fixed for redemption of such Debt; and, in any instance where Debt is so excluded, for the purpose of computing the assets of such Person there shall be excluded the money, securities or evidences of Debt deposited by such Person in trust for the purpose of paying or satisfying such Debt.

 

-2-


Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in the form of one or more Global Securities, the Person designated as Depositary by the Issuer pursuant to Section 2.04 until a successor Depositary shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depositary” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Depositary hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any such series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Global Securities of that series.

Dollar” means the currency of the United States of America as at the time of payment is legal tender for the payment of public and private debts.

Event of Default” means any event or condition specified as such in Section 5.01.

Foreign Currency” means a currency issued by the government of a country other than the United States.

“Foreign Government Obligation” means (a) a direct obligation of the government of a country other than the United States of America, backed by the full faith and credit of such government, (b) an obligation of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of such government, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by such government or (c) any depositary receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933) as custodian with respect to any Foreign Government Obligation which is specified in clause (a) and held by such bank for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt, or with respect to any specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Foreign Government Obligation which is so specified and held, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Foreign Government Obligation or the specific payment of principal or interest evidenced by such depositary receipt.

Global Security” means a Security evidencing all or a part of a series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such series in accordance with Section 2.04, and bearing the legend prescribed in Section 2.04.

Holder”, “holder”,holder of Securities”, “Securityholder” or other similar terms mean the Person in whose name such Security is registered in the Security register kept by the Issuer for that purpose in accordance with the terms hereof.

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed and delivered or, if amended or supplemented as herein provided, as so amended or supplemented or both, and shall include the forms and terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

interest”, unless the context otherwise requires, refers to interest, and when used with respect to non-interest bearing Securities, refers to interest payable after maturity, if any.

 

-3-


Interest Payment Date”, with respect to any Security, means the Stated Maturity of an installment of interest on such Security.

Issuer” means Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and, subject to Article 9, its successors and assigns.

Issuer Order” means a written statement, request or order of the Issuer signed in its name by the chairman of the Board of Directors, the president or any vice president of the Issuer.

“Notice of Default” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 5.01(c).

Officers Certificate” means a certificate signed by the chairman of the Board of Directors, the president, any vice president, the treasurer, the secretary or any assistant secretary of the Issuer and delivered to the Trustee. Each such certificate shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and, except to the extent provided herein, shall include the statements provided for in Section 11.05.

Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing signed by the general corporate counsel or such other legal counsel who may be an employee of or counsel to the Issuer and who shall be satisfactory to the Trustee. Each such opinion shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and shall include the statements provided for in Section 11.05, if and to the extent required hereby.

&#